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Developing Novel, Targeted Countermeasures to Reduce Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Muscle Atrophy during Microgravity (NCC958PF03504)
Principal Investigator
Research Area:
Musculoskeletal Alterations Team
Species Studied
Scientific Name: Homo sapiens Species: Human

The reduced mechanical loading of space flight is associated with decreased skeletal muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA) and force-generating capacity. Muscle atrophy and weakness may then impede mission objectives, increase the risk of injury, and increase susceptibility to damage upon reloading. Muscular alterations with spaceflight are therefore a critical limitation to performance during space flight missions and a serious health concern for astronauts. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress is increased in microgravity and contributes to skeletal muscle atrophy. Oxidative stress is classically defined as an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and removal by endogenous antioxidants. ROS are produced primarily from the mitochondria as well as nonphagocytic NAPDH-oxidases (Nox) in skeletal muscle and can have various harmful effects without adequate antioxidant sequestration. ROS have been shown to activate different proteolytic pathways during skeletal muscle disuse and may induce translocation of the muscle specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase-µ (nNOSµ) splice variant from the sarcolemma to the cytosol leading to muscle atrophy. The purpose of this investigation was to develop novel, targeted countermeasures to abolish the effects of oxidative stress and prevent muscle atrophy during microgravity.

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Kuczmarski JM, Hord JM, Lee Y, Guzzoni V, Rodriguez D, Lawler MS, Garcia-Villatoro EL, Holly D, Ryan P, Falcon K, Garcia M, Janini Gomes M, Fluckey JD, and Lawler JM. Effect of Eukarion-134 on Akt-mTOR signaling in the rat soleus during 7 days of mechanical unloading. Experimental Physiology. 2018. April 1;103(4):545-58. [DOI]

Muscle fibers

Data Information
Data Availability
Archive is complete. No data sets are available for this experiment. Please Contact LSDA if you know of available data for this investigation.

Antioxidant inhibitors
Cross sectional area
Muscle mass
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase
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Mission/Study Information
Mission Launch/Start Date Landing/End Date Duration
Ground 05/01/2009 In Progress

Additional Information
Managing NASA Center
Johnson Space Center (JSC)
Responsible NASA Representative
Institutional Support
National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI)
Proposal Date
Proposal Source
2013 NSBRI-RFA-13-01 Post