The rover simulation study titled, “Effect of Sensorimotor Adaptation Following Long-Duration Spaceflight on Perception and Control of Vehicular Motion” with Dr. Scott Wood as the PI was incorporated into this study.
1. The Cognitive/Sensorimotor Test Battery, the Stanford Sleepiness Scale and static visual acuity consisted of a series of tests conducted beside or in the Motion Control System. The tests included tasks that quantified manual dexterity, reaction time, perspective taking, match to sample, manual tracking, dual tasking, and motion perception.
2. The Driving Simulator presented two situations: 1) maintaining lane position while driving along a curvy mountain road and 2) a slalom course in which cones must be negotiated as quickly as possible. Driving performance such as speed, ability to stay in lane, and obstacles hit, was acquired throughout testing.
3. The Flight Simulation performed 3 standard landings in a T-38A Talon. Aircraft dynamics, wheel altitude at runway threshold, sink rate, touchdown speed, and runway position, were acquired for each simulation.
4. The Rover Simulation consisted of a serial presentation of four discrete docking tasks that the crewmember attempted to complete within each session. Each task consisted of 1) perspective-taking, using a map that defines the rover orientation and location relative to the docking target, 2) navigation toward the target around a Martian outpost as efficiently as possible, and 3) docking a side hatch of the rover to another rover or habitat hatch using a visually guided targeting system. At the completion of each task, a new perspective map appeared to initiate the next task in the series. The total time the crewmember could complete four docking tasks determined the overall operator proficiency for the rover simulation.
Given that there were typically about eight months between the last preflight and first postflight sessions, some changes in crewmember proficiency were expected as a function of time, independent of the effects of space flight. Therefore, one of the ground control studies examined the changes in operator proficiency following a simulated eight-month gap between the preflight and postflight sessions as a control for this recency effect. Also, crewmembers reported significantly higher sleepiness scores on R+0, thus another ground control study examined the independent effects of sleepiness on operator proficiency by testing subjects before and after a 30-hour sleep deprivation period.
This study provided evidence that long-duration space flight impairs a crewmember's ability to operate a vehicle, and identified what sensorimotor/cognitive functions contributed to the degradation of operator proficiency. This study also provided evidence that sensorimotor countermeasures will be required for exploration mission landings and surface operations, along with what areas these countermeasures should target.
|Mission||Launch/Start Date||Landing/End Date||Duration|
|Expedition 33||09/16/2012||11/18/2012||63 days|
|Expedition 34||11/18/2012||03/15/2013||117 days|
|Expedition 35||03/15/2013||05/13/2013||58 days|
|Expedition 36||05/13/2013||09/10/2013||166 days|
|Expedition 37||09/10/2013||11/10/2013||61 days|
|Expedition 38||11/10/2013||03/10/2014||120 days|
|Expedition 39||03/10/2014||05/13/2014||64 days|
|Expedition 40||05/13/2014||09/10/2014||133 days|
|Expedition 41||09/10/2014||11/09/2014||29 days|
|Expedition 42||11/10/2014||03/11/2015||121 days|
|Expedition 43||03/11/2015||06/10/2015||91 days|