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Functional Neuromuscular Adaptation to Spaceflight (8809A13 1_2)
Principal Investigator
Research Area:
Muscle physiology
Species Studied
Scientific Name: Macaca mulatta Species: Monkey Strain: Rhesus


This study was designed to determine the effects of the absence of weight support on flexor and extensor muscles of the hind limb. These effects were assessed morphologically and biochemically from muscle biopsies taken from a slow extensor: the soleus; a fast extensor: the medial gastrocnemius (MG); and a fast flexor: the tibialis anterior (TA). A second objective was to determine the relative importance of activity (by EMG) and force (by joint torque) on the adaptation of muscle.

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Bodine-Fowler, S. et al.: Spaceflight and Growth Effects on Muscle Fibers in the Rhesus Monkey. Journal of Applied Physiology, supl., vol. 73, no. 2, 1992, pp. S82-S89.

Bodine-Fowler, S.C. et al.: Response of Hindlimb Muscle of Rhesus Monkey to 14 Day Spaceflight (abstract). Physiologist, vol. 33, 1990, p. A76.

Edgerton, V.R. et al.: Functional Neuromuscular Adaptation to Spaceflight. Final Reports of the U.S. Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Vol. 2. J.P. Connolly, R.E. Grindeland, and R.W. Ballard, eds., NASA TM-108802, 1994, pp. 335-352.

Hodgson, J.A. et al.: Changes in Recruitment of Rhesus Soleus and Gastrocnemius Muscles Following a 14 Day Spaceflight. Physiologist, supl., vol. 34, no. 1, 1991, pp. S102-S103.

Roy, R.R. et al.: Architectural and Fiber Type Distribution Properties of Selected Rhesus Leg Muscles: Feasibility of Multiple Independent Biopsies. Acta Anat., vol. 140, 1991, pp. 350-356.

Roy RR, Hutchison DL, Pierotti DJ, Hodgson JA, Edgerton VR; EMG patterns of rat ankle extensors and flexors during treadmill locomotion and swimming, J Appl Physiol. 1991 Jun;70(6):2522-9.

Pierotti DJ, Roy RR, Flores V, Edgerton VR, Influence of 7 days of hindlimb suspension and intermittent weight support on rat muscle mechanical properties, Aviat Space Environ Med. 1990 Mar;61(3):205-10.

Adaptation, physiological
Behavior, animal
Motor activity
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Data Information
Data Availability
Archive is complete. No data sets are available for this experiment. Please Contact LSDA if you know of available data for this investigation.

Activity, EMG, Gastrocnemius, muscle, primate, Implanted EMG electrodes (recording)
Activity, EMG, Soleus, muscle, primate, Implanted EMG electrodes (recording)
Activity, EMG, Tibialis anterior, muscle, primate, Implanted EMG electrodes (recording)
Activity, enzymic, Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), gastrocnemius, muscle, primate, Assay
Activity, enzymic, Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), soleus, muscle, primate, Assay
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Mission/Study Information
Mission Launch/Start Date Landing/End Date Duration
Cosmos 2044 09/15/1989 09/29/1989 14 days

Additional Information
Managing NASA Center
Ames Research Center (ARC)
Responsible NASA Representative
Ames Research Center LSDA Level 3
Project Manager: Martha Del Alto
Institutional Support
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Alternate Experiment Name
C2044-17, COS 2044-26
Protocol / Approach
Proposal Date
Proposal Source
Hardware Items