Measuring core body temperature is not straightforward because a thermometer must be placed close to the heart for best results. Many types of thermometers exist, from the type that goes under the tongue to the type that goes into the ear, but unfortunately the most accurate way of reading a core temperature is inserting a thermometer in the rectum. Body temperature tends to be lower in the feet and lowest in the early morning hours between four and six.
This experiment shows that an astronaut's temperature rises by one degree Celsius during the first two months on the ISS and remains there until it drops back to normal on return to Earth. Comparing data to other studies shows a correlation with Interleukin-1, a hormone that causes fever when sick. Raising body temperature by a degree requires 20% more energy, derived from food, so mission planners need to know more about this phenomenon in order to estimate the required food supplies for long-duration missions.
|Mission||Launch/Start Date||Landing/End Date||Duration|
|Expedition 21||10/11/2009||12/01/2009||51 days|
|Expedition 22||11/30/2009||03/18/2010||109 days|
|Expedition 23||03/18/2010||06/01/2010||75 days|
|Expedition 24||06/01/2010||09/25/2010||117 days|
|Expedition 25||09/24/2010||11/25/2010||31 days|
|Expedition 26||11/26/2010||03/16/2011||111 days|
|Expedition 27||03/14/2011||05/23/2011||70 days|
|Expedition 28||05/23/2011||09/15/2011||115 days|
|Expedition 29||09/16/2011||11/21/2011||40 days|
|Expedition 30||11/14/2011||04/27/2012||166 days|
|Expedition 31||04/27/2012||07/01/2012||65 days|
|Expedition 32||07/01/2012||09/16/2012||78 days|