Acquiring new scientific information to refine the understanding about the mechanisms of adapting the cardiorespiratory system and the whole organism to space flight conditions. Integrated study of a cardiovascular system of astronauts in various phases of a long-duration mission in order to clarify the adaptation mechanisms and phases and determine diagnostic criteria for individual assessment of the organism adaptation to zero-gravity conditions. Study of the synchronization of heart activity and breathing factors, as well as the cardiorespiratory system control processes based on variability rate of physiological parameters. Study of interconnection between the cardiorespiratory system during a long-duration mission and tolerance of orthostatic and physical activities at the beginning of readaptation for predicting possible reactions of the crewmembers organism during the their return to ground.
Heart rate variability (HRV) from Pneumocard experiment was measured and analyzed on 14 Russian cosmonauts during long term space flights (twice before and after flight, monthly in flight) to test the hypothesis that HRV can be used to provide important information for crew health monitoring. Changes of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) seen in cosmonauts during space flight may be relatively small when compared to patients with cardiovascular diseases. However, these small changes are the result of compensatory changes of the regulatory systems, and measurements of cardiovascular and respiratory control may provide useful health information. Results suggest that the HRV of cosmonauts remained relatively stable during the six months in space with the most pronounced change occurring after landing. Interestingly, the functional state assessed by HRV improved during space flight if compared to preflight and early postflight data. In some instances, a shift from the physiological normal state to the altered functional state during space flight was also detected, and analysis of individual cosmonauts showed distinct patterns depending on the preflight status. The most pronounced changes were detected early after landing (1–3 days) but returned to preflight values at 5–7 days after landing in most cosmonauts. The key finding of the study was that the classification system based on analysis of HRV data to calculate a functional state of the cosmonaut before, during, and after space flight may be used to show individual adaptation to microgravity. The monthly measurements during space flight allowed detection of any likely trend toward a lower functional state and potential cardiovascular impairment at the end of flight (Baevsky et al., 2011).
|Mission||Launch/Start Date||Landing/End Date||Duration|
|Expedition 14||09/18/2006||04/21/2007||215 days|
|Expedition 15||04/07/2007||10/21/2007||197 days|
|Expedition 16||10/10/2007||04/19/2008||192 days|
|Expedition 17||04/08/2008||10/23/2008||198 days|
|Expedition 18||10/12/2008||04/17/2009||187 days|
|Expedition 19||03/26/2009||10/11/2009||199 days|
|Expedition 20||05/27/2009||10/11/2009||137 days|
|Expedition 21||10/11/2009||12/01/2009||51 days|
|Expedition 22||11/30/2009||03/18/2010||109 days|
|Expedition 23||03/18/2010||06/01/2010||75 days|
|Expedition 24||06/01/2010||09/25/2010||117 days|
|Expedition 27||03/14/2011||05/23/2011||70 days|
|Expedition 28||05/23/2011||09/15/2011||115 days|