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Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Study (Sprint)
Principal Investigator
Research Area:
Cardiovascular physiology
Exercise physiology
Species Studied
Scientific Name: Homo sapiens Species: Human

Current exercise countermeasures are insufficient to prevent muscle atrophy, cardiovascular deconditioning and bone loss associated with long-duration space flight. A known limitation has been the inability of the International Space Station (ISS) exercise hardware to provide sufficient loads to the human body that are required for maintaining physiological function. New flight exercise hardware, including the advanced resistance exercise device (ARED) and second generation treadmill (T2) are designed to provide astronauts with the ability to exercise at higher intensity. This opens an array of new possibilities for exercise programming in long-duration space flight. While the ability to do resistance exercises at heavier loads and the ability to run faster and potentially with more body loading are obvious improvements in exercise capabilities, the details of how this new equipment should be used are not so obvious. Towards this end, two workshops were held, the NASA Muscle Workshop in June 2008 and the NASA International Space Station Exercise Prescription Workshop in October 2008. Intramural and extramural experts concluded that using higher intensity resistance exercises and interval aerobic exercise would help to maintain physiological function while simultaneously decreasing total exercise time and volume. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to evaluate the efficacy of a new Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training (Sprint) program designed to minimize loss of muscle, bone and cardiovascular function during ISS missions. Highlights of the Sprint program include an increase in the intensity and a reduction in the volume of resistance exercises, inclusion of very short, but high intensity interval-type aerobic exercises, and starting the exercise countermeasures as early as possible in the flight, preferably in the first week. Pre-, in- and postflight testing, and data sharing with selected on-going medical assessment tests, will be used to assess the effectiveness of this candidate prescription (active group) versus normal in-flight exercise (the control group).

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Oxygen consumption
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Musculoskeletal physiology

Photo Gallery
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Data Information
Data Availability
Archiving in Progress. Some restricted access data exist for this experiment.
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Actin filament density
Aerobic capacity VO2pk
Bone mineral content BMC
Bone volume
Cross Sectional Area CSA leg
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Mission/Study Information
Mission Launch/Start Date Landing/End Date Duration
Expedition 27 03/14/2011 05/23/2011 70 days
Expedition 28 05/23/2011 09/15/2011 115 days
Expedition 29 09/16/2011 11/21/2011 40 days
Expedition 30 11/14/2011 04/27/2012 166 days
Expedition 31 04/27/2012 07/01/2012 65 days
Expedition 32 07/01/2012 09/16/2012 78 days
Expedition 35 03/15/2013 05/13/2013 58 days
Expedition 36 05/13/2013 09/10/2013 166 days
Expedition 37 09/10/2013 11/10/2013 61 days
Expedition 38 11/10/2013 03/10/2014 120 days
Expedition 39 03/10/2014 05/13/2014 64 days
Expedition 40 05/13/2014 09/10/2014 133 days
Expedition 41 09/10/2014 11/09/2014 29 days
Expedition 43 03/11/2015 06/10/2015 91 days
Expedition 44 06/10/2015 09/11/2015 93 days
Expedition 45 09/11/2015 12/11/2015 91 days
Expedition 46 12/11/2015 03/02/2016 82 days
Expedition 47 03/02/2016 06/18/2016 108 days
Expedition 48 06/18/2016 09/06/2016 80 days
Expedition 49 09/06/2016 10/30/2016 54 days
Expedition 50 10/28/2016 04/09/2017 164 days
Expedition 51 04/09/2017 06/02/2017 55 days
Expedition 52 06/02/2017 09/02/2017 92 days

Human Research Program (HRP) Human Research Roadmap (HRR) Information
Crew health and performance is critical to successful human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Human Research Program (HRP) investigates and mitigates the highest risks to human health and performance, providing essential countermeasures and technologies for human space exploration. Risks include physiological and performance effects from hazards such as radiation, altered gravity, and hostile environments, as well as unique challenges in medical support, human factors, and behavioral health support. The HRP utilizes an Integrated Research Plan (IRP) to identify the approach and research activities planned to address these risks, which are assigned to specific Elements within the program. The Human Research Roadmap is the web-based tool for communicating the IRP content.

The Human Research Roadmap is located at:

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Additional Information
Managing NASA Center
Johnson Space Center (JSC)
Responsible NASA Representative
Johnson Space Center LSDA Office
Project Manager: Jessica Keune
Institutional Support
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Alternate Experiment Name
Proposal Date
Proposal Source
Directed Research