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Hematology and Immunology Studies (AP007)
Research Area:
Species Studied
Scientific Name: Homo sapiens Species: Human

Specific changes observed during the Gemini Program formed the basis for the major portion of the hematology-immunology test schedule for the Apollo program. These changes included cardiovascular deconditioning and substantial decreases in plasma volume and red blood cell mass.

The hematology and immunology program conducted in support of the Apollo missions was designed to acquire specific laboratory data relative to the assessment of crew health prior to their commitment to space flight. A second, equally important objective was to detect and identify any alterations in the normal functions of the immunohematologic systems attributable to space flight exposure, and to evaluate the significance of these changes relative to man's continuing participation in space flight missions.

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Anderson M, Rummel JA, and Deutsch S (editors). BIOSPEX: Biological Space Experiments: A Summary of Life Sciences Experiments Carried on U.S. Spacecraft. NASA-TM-58217. 1979:1-79-1-82. [NTRS]

Berry CA. Medical legacy of Apollo. Aerospace Medicine. 1974. September; 45(9):1046-57. []

Berry CA. Medical results of Apollo 14 - Implications for longer duration space flights. XXIInd International Astronautical Congress; 1971 Sept 25; Brussels, Belgium. 22p.

Berry CA. Summary of medical experience in the Apollo 7 through 11 manned spaceflights. Aerospace Medicine. 1970. May; 41(5):500-19. []

Berry CA. Weightlessness. In: Parker JS, Jr., West VR, editors. Bioastronautics Data Book, 2nd Ed. NASA SP-3006, 1973:349-415. [NTRS]

Fischer CL, Daniels JC, Levin WC, Kimzey SL, Cobb EK, Ritzmann SE. Effects of the space flight environment on man's immune system: II. Lymphocyte counts and reactivity. Aerospace Medicine. 1972. October; 43(10):1122-25. []

Fischer CL, Gill C, Cobb EK, Berry CA, Ritzmann SE, Daniels JC. Effects of the spaceflight environment on man's immune system: I. Serum proteins and immunoglobulins. Aerospace Medicine. 1972. August; 43(8):856-59. []

Fischer CL, Kimzey, SL. Hematology results on Gemini and Apollo missions. Proceedings of the 1970 Manned Spacecraft Center Endocrine Program Conference; 1970 Oct 5-7; Houston, Texas: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1971.

Johnson PC, Driscoll TB. Red cell mass plasma volume changes found in selected Apollo missions. Int Aero Abstr. 1972 May; 36-37.

Johnson PC. Red cell mass and plasma volume changes observed in astronauts on three Gemini and three Apollo missions. Proceedings of the 1970 Manned Spacecraft Center Endocrine Program Conference; 1970 Oct 5-7; Houston, Texas. NASA TM X-58068, 1971; 14p. [NTRS]

Kimzey SL, Fischer CL, Johnson PC, Ritzmann SE, Mengal CE. Hematology and immunolgy studies. In: Johnson RS, Dietlein LF, Berry CA, eds. Biomedical Results of Apollo. Washington, DC: NASA Headquarters; 1975:197-226. NASA SP-368. [NTRS]

Kimzey, SL. Special hematology/immunology studies. Apollo 17 Preliminary Report.

Adaptation, psychological
Blood physiology
Blood proteins
Blood volume
Body fluids
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Data Information
Data Availability
Archive is complete. Some data sets are online.
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2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG)
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
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Mission/Study Information
Mission Launch/Start Date Landing/End Date Duration
Apollo 10 05/18/1969 05/26/1969 8 days
Apollo 11 07/16/1969 07/24/1969 8 days
Apollo 12 11/14/1969 11/24/1969 10 days
Apollo 13 04/11/1970 04/17/1970 6 days
Apollo 14 01/31/1971 02/09/1971 9 days
Apollo 15 07/26/1971 08/07/1971 12 days
Apollo 16 04/16/1972 04/27/1972 11 days
Apollo 17 12/07/1972 12/19/1972 12 days
Apollo 7 10/11/1968 10/22/1968 11 days
Apollo 8 12/21/1968 12/27/1968 6 days
Apollo 9 03/03/1969 03/13/1969 10 days

Additional Information
Managing NASA Center
Johnson Space Center (JSC)
Responsible NASA Representative
Johnson Space Center LSDA Office
Project Manager: Jessica Keune
Institutional Support
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)