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Radiation Protection and Instrumentation (AP003)
Principal Investigator
Research Area:
Radiation biology
Species Studied
Scientific Name: Homo sapiens Species: Human

Description
OBJECTIVES:
The solar and cosmic radiation found in space has long been recognized as a possible danger in space travel. Apollo missions, for the first time, placed men outside the Earth's geomagnetic shield, subjecting them to potentially hazardous particulate radiation of an intensity and frequency not encountered in Earth's environment. During a complete Apollo mission, astronauts were exposed to widely varying radiation sources, such as the Van Allen belts, solar surface eruptions, cosmic rays, neutrons, and subatomic particles created in high-energy collisions of primary particles with spacecraft materials. The primary objective was to limit exposure to these sources, and also to measure the dose from each source.

A secondary objective was to protect the astronauts and ground crews against sources of man made radiation, such as the radioisotope thermal generator used to conduct the lunar surface experiments, and some radioluminescent sources on the spacecraft.

The Apollo radiation protection program focused on avoiding the harmful radiation effects encountered in space by limiting the radiation dose to the lowest level judged consistent with achieving beneficial goals.


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Publications
Bailey JV. Radiation protection and instrumentation. Biomedical Results of Apollo. In: Johnson RS, Dietlein LF, Berry CA, eds. Washington, DC: NASA Headquarters; 1975:105-15. NASA-SP-368. [NTRS]

Benton EV, Henke RP and Bailey JV. Heavy cosmic ray exposure of Apollo astronauts. Science. 1975;187(4173):263-5.[pubmed.gov]

Benton EV, Henke RP. Heavy Cosmic Ray Exposure of Apollo 16 Astronauts. Technical Report 20, University of San Francisco, 1972.

Benton EV, Henke RP. Heavy Cosmic Ray Exposure of Apollo 17 Astronauts. Technical Report 26, University of San Francisco, 1973.

Benton EV. Summary of current radiation dosimetry results on manned spacecraft. Advances in Space Research. 1984; 4(10):153-60. [pubmed.gov]

English RA, Benson RE, Bailey JV, and Barnes CM. Apollo experience report: Protection against radiation. Technical Report NASA-TN-D-7080. NASA Johnson Space Center; Houston, TX, United States March 01, 1973. [NTRS]

Keywords
Cosmic radiation
Linear energy transfer (LET)
Radiation dosage
Radiation monitoring
Radiation protection
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Data Information
Data Availability
Archive is complete. Some data sets are online.
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Parameters
Absorbed dose
Fluence
Geometric mean fluence
Geometric mean flux
Total dose

Mission/Study Information
Launch/Start Date
05/18/1969
07/16/1969
11/14/1969
04/11/1970
01/31/1971
07/26/1971
04/16/1972
12/07/1972
10/11/1968
12/21/1968
03/03/1969
Landing/End Date
05/26/1969
07/24/1969
11/24/1969
04/17/1970
02/09/1971
08/07/1971
04/27/1972
12/19/1972
10/22/1968
12/27/1968
03/13/1969
Duration
8 days
8 days
10 days
6 days
9 days
12 days
11 days
12 days
11 days
6 days
10 days

Additional Information
Co-Investigators
Managing NASA Center
Johnson Space Center (JSC)
Responsible NASA Representative
Johnson Space Center LSDA Office
Project Manager: Kenneth C. Jenks
Institutional Support
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)