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Endocrine, Electrolyte, and Fluid Volume Changes Associated with Apollo Missions (AP008)
Principal Investigator
Research Area:
Metabolism and nutrition
Species Studied
Scientific Name: Homo sapiens Species: Human

The objective of this study was to evaluate the biochemical changes in Apollo crewmembers. The areas studied were balance of fluid and electrolytes, regulation of calcium metabolism, adaptation to the environment, and regulation of metabolic processes. Although these studies, like others of the Apollo program, were designed mainly for crew health maintenance and well-being, the results of these studies provided an idea of the nature and the extent of the endocrine responses by the crewmen who flew the Apollo missions.

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Anderson M, Rummel JA, Deutsch S. BIOSPEX: A Compendium of Life Science Experiments Carried on U. S. Spacecraft. NASA TM-X-58217, p. 57, 1979. [NTRS]

Berry CA. Apollo 7 to 11: Medical Concerns and Results. NASA Technical Memorandum TM X-58034, p. 16-17, 1969. [NTRS]

Berry CA. Summary of medical experience in the Apollo 7 through 11 manned spaceflights. Aerospace Medicine. 1970. May; 41(5):500-519. []

Leach CA. Review of endocrine results: Project Mercury, Gemini Program, and Apollo Program. Proceedings of the 1970 Manned Spacecraft Center Endocrine Program Conference; 3-5 October 1970. NASA Technical Memorandum TM-X-58068. [NTRS]

Leach CS, Alexander WC, Johnson PC. Endocrine, electrolyte, and fluid volume changes associated with Apollo missions. In: Johnson RS, Dietlein LF, Berry CA, eds. Biomedical Results of Apollo. Washington, DC: NASA Headquarters; 1975:163-184. NASA SP-368. [NTRS]

Leach CS, Rambaut PC, and Johnson PC. Adrenocortical responses of the Apollo 17 crew members. Aerospace Medicine. 1974. May; 45(5):529-34. []

Data Information
Data Availability
Archive is complete. All data sets are on the Web site.
Data Sets + View data.

17-hydroxycorticosteroid: total
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Amino acids
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Mission/Study Information
Mission Launch/Start Date Landing/End Date Duration
Apollo 10 05/18/1969 05/26/1969 8 days
Apollo 11 07/16/1969 07/24/1969 8 days
Apollo 12 11/14/1969 11/24/1969 10 days
Apollo 13 04/11/1970 04/17/1970 6 days
Apollo 14 01/31/1971 02/09/1971 9 days
Apollo 15 07/26/1971 08/07/1971 12 days
Apollo 16 04/16/1972 04/27/1972 11 days
Apollo 17 12/07/1972 12/19/1972 12 days
Apollo 7 10/11/1968 10/22/1968 11 days
Apollo 8 12/21/1968 12/27/1968 6 days
Apollo 9 03/03/1969 03/13/1969 10 days

Additional Information
Managing NASA Center
Johnson Space Center (JSC)
Responsible NASA Representative
Johnson Space Center LSDA Office
Project Manager: Pamela A. Bieri
Institutional Support
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)