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Sleep Monitoring (M133)
Principal Investigator
Research Area:
Species Studied
Scientific Name: Homo sapiens Species: Human

Prior to Skylab, very little objective information had been obtained concerning the ability of man to sleep in space. Only by continuous EEG (electroencephalographic) monitoring can such information be obtained, and the technical problems associated with acquisition and analysis in space are significant. Before the advent of manned spaceflight, there was some concern about the possible adverse effects of this weightless environment upon sleep characteristics. During the Gemini program, however, it became apparent that fairly long duration space flight was not associated with drastic alterations of sleeping behavior. Astronauts could sleep in space and, on at least some occasions, did so fairly well. In the Gemini and Apollo programs, though, it became clear that in many instances insomnia was a problem. Sleep loss, while not absolute, was sufficient in some instances to result in performance decrements. In some instances, sleeping difficulties resulted in the use of hypnotic drugs to promote sleep and amphetamine-type medication to increase alertness following sleep loss

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Anonymous. Skylab mission report, second visit. NASA Johnson Space Center; Houston, TX, United States. January 01, 1974. NASA-TM-X-69996. [NTRS]

Frost JD Jr, Shumate WH, Booher CR, DeLucchi MR. The Skylab sleep monitoring experiment: methodology and initial results. Acta Astronautica. 1975;2(3-4):319-36.[]

Frost JD Jr, Shumate WH, Salamy JG, Booher CR. Skylab sleep monitoring experiment (M133). In: Johnston RS, Dietlein LF, eds. Proceedings of the Skylab Life Sciences Symposium, August 27-29, 1974, Volume 2. Houston, TX: NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center; 1974:239-85. NASA TM-X-58154-VOL-2. [NTRS]

Frost JD Jr, Shumate WH, Salamy JG, Booher CR. Experiment M133. Sleep monitoring on Skylab. In: Johnston RS, Dietlein LF, eds. Biomedical Results from Skylab. Washington, DC: NASA Headquarters; 1977. NASA SP-377. [NTRS]

Frost, JD Jr. Skylab sleep monitoring experiment (experiment M133). Methodist Hospital; Houston, TX, United States. January 31, 1975. NASA-CR-141886. [NTRS]

Mission Evaluation Team. Skylab mission report, third visit. Houston, TX: NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center; 1974. NASA TM-X-70385; JSC-08963. [NTRS]

Newkirk RW, Ertel LD, and Brooks CG. Skylab: A chronology. NASA; Washington, DC, United States. January 01, 1977. NASA-SP-4011. [NTRS]


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Data Information
Data Availability
Archive is complete. Data sets are not publicly available but can be requested.
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Sleep duration
Sleep monitoring
Sleep quality

Mission/Study Information
Mission Launch/Start Date Landing/End Date Duration
Skylab 2 05/25/1973 06/22/1973 28 days
Skylab 3 07/28/1973 09/25/1973 59.5 days
Skylab 4 11/16/1973 02/08/1974 84 days

Additional Information
Other Key People
Managing NASA Center
Johnson Space Center (JSC)
Responsible NASA Representative
Johnson Space Center LSDA Office
Project Manager: Pamela A. Bieri
Institutional Support
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Hardware Items