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The Morphogenetic Responses of Cultured Totipotent Cells of Carrot at Zero Gravity (COS 782-7)
Principal Investigator
Research Area:
Plant biology
Species Studied
Scientific Name: Daucus carota Species: Carrot


Free cultured carrot cells can develop like zygotic embryos and can initiate the complex growing regions that produce organs (shoots and roots) independently of the normal environment of the fertilized egg. The principal objective of this experiment was to test whether cells of a higher plant, such as the carrot, could develop normally under space flight conditions and emulate their known ability on Earth to multiply and develop, forming organs, embryoids, and normal plantlets.

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Krikorian, A.D. and F.C. Steward: Is Gravity a Morphological Determinant in Plants at the Cellular Level? Life Sciences and Space Research, Vol. XVII, R. Holmquist, ed., Pergamon Press, 1979, pp. 271-284.

Krikorian, A.D. and F.C. Steward: Morphogenetic Responses of Cultured Totipotent Cells of Carrot (Daucus Carota var. carota) at Zero Gravity. Science, vol. 200, 1978, pp. 67-68.

Krikorian, A.D. and H.G. Levine: Chapter Eight: Development and Growth in Space. Plant Physiology: A Treatise, Vol. X: Growth and Development, 1991, pp. 491-555.

Krikorian, A.D.: Excerpts from the History of Plant Physiology and Development. Historical and Current Aspects of Plant Physiology: A Symposium Honoring F.C. Steward, Ithaca, N.Y., May 1, 1973. P.J. Davies, ed., Cornell University, 1975, pp. 9-97.

Steward, F.C. and A.D. Krikorian: The Morphogenetic Responses of Cultured Totipotent Cells of Carrot (Daucus carota L.) at Zero Gravity. Final Reports of U.S. Experiments Flown on the Soviet Satellite Cosmos 782. S.N. Rosenzweig and K.A. Souza, eds., NASA TM-78525, 1978, pp. 71-159.

Steward, F.C. et al.: Observations on Growth Morphogenesis in Cultured Cells of Carrot (Daucus Carota). Phil. Trans. Royal Society of London, B. Biol. Science, vol. 273B, no. 922, 1975, pp. 33-53.

Cells, cultured
Microscopy, electron

Data Information
Data Availability
Archive is complete. No data sets are available for this experiment. Please Contact LSDA if you know of available data for this investigation.

Count, Totipotent cells, carrot, plant, Microscopy
Damage, Developmental abnormalities, carrot tissue, plant, Microscopy
Embryonic growth
Growth rate: plant
Growth rate: somatic
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Mission/Study Information
Mission Launch/Start Date Landing/End Date Duration
Cosmos 782 11/25/1975 12/15/1975 20 days

Additional Information
Managing NASA Center
Ames Research Center (ARC)
Responsible NASA Representative
Ames Research Center LSDA Level 3
Project Manager: Helen Stewart
Institutional Support
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Alternate Experiment Name
Protocol / Approach