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Energy and Metabolic Requirements for Extended Duration Space Flight (Energy Utilization) (DSO 612)
Principal Investigator
Research Area:
Metabolism and nutrition
Species Studied
Scientific Name: Homo sapiens Species: Human

An astronaut will lose lean body mass if energy balance is not maintained. This is especially true if energy expenditure exceeds energy intake. However, astronauts on Skylab lost lean body mass in spite of the apparent adequate intake of energy and protein. Energy requirements could be affected by microgravity and by the limits on physical activity in the close confines of the spacecraft. Before this study, energy requirements during space flight had only been estimated from metabolic balance studies and food intake records. The objectives of this study were to measure total energy expenditure (TEE) during space flight and to compare the results with calculated energy intake.

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Gretebeck RJ, Schoeller DA, Gibson EK, Lane HW. Energy expenditure during antiorthostatic bed rest (simulated microgravity). J Appl Physiol 1995;78:2207-11.[]

Gretebeck RJ, Schoeller DA, Socki RA, Davis-Street J, Gibson EK, Schulz LO, Lane HW. Adaptation of the doubly labeled water method for subjects consuming isotopically enriched water. J Appl Physiol 1997;82:563-70.[]

Gretebeck RJ, Siconolfi SF, Rice B, Lane HW. Physical performance is maintained in women consuming only foods used on the U. S. Space Shuttle. Aviat Space Environ Med 1994;65:1036-40.[]

Hardware. In: Sawin CF, Taylor GR, Smith WL, editors. Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project final report 1989-1995. Houston: NASA Johnson Space Center, 1999:8-1--8-18.

Lane HW, BV Morukov, IM Larina, SM Smith, AI Grigoriev, and CS Leach. Fluid homeostasis during long-term space flight. IAA/NASA 12th Annual Man In Space Symposium; 1997.

Lane HW, Gretebeck RJ, Schoeller DA, Davis-Street J, Socki RA, Gibson EK. Comparison of ground-based and space flight energy expenditure and water turnover in middle-aged healthy male US astronauts. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:4-12.[]

Lane HW, Gretebeck RJ. Metabolic energy required for flight. Adv Space Res 1994;14(11):l47-55.[]

Lane HW, Rice B, Kloeris V, Frye S, Siconolfi SF, Spector ER, Gretebeck RJ. Energy intake, body weight, and lean body mass are maintained in healthy, active women consuming a US Space Shuttle diet. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:87-8.[]

Lane HW, V Oganov, CP Alfrey, BV Morukov, IM Larina, and Smith SM. Shuttle/Mir-Science Project Results: Metabolic Experiments. AIAA/NASA Life Sciences Space Medicine Conference; 1996.

Lane HW, Whitson PA, Putcha L, Baker E, Smith SM, Stewart K, Gretebeck RJ, Nimmagudda RR, Schoeller DA, Davis-Street J, Pietrzyk RA, DeKerlegand DE, Pak CYC, Bourne DWA. Regulatory physiology. In: Sawin CF, Taylor GR, Smith WL, editors. Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project final report 1989-1995. Houston: NASA Johnson Space Center, 1999:2-1--2-10.

Body composition
Body weight
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Data Information
Data Availability
Archive is complete. Some data sets are online.
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Some data sets are not publicly available but can be requested.
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Alcohol intake
Body max index - BMI
Calculated energy requirement
Carbohydrate intake
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Mission/Study Information
Mission Launch/Start Date Landing/End Date Duration
STS-45 03/24/1992 04/02/1992 9 days
STS-47 09/12/1992 09/19/1992 7 days
STS-58 10/18/1993 11/01/1993 14 days
STS-62 03/04/1994 03/18/1994 14 days
STS-64 09/09/1994 09/20/1994 11 days
STS-66 11/03/1994 11/14/1994 11 days

Additional Information
Managing NASA Center
Johnson Space Center (JSC)
Responsible NASA Representative
Johnson Space Center LSDA Office
Project Manager: Pamela A. Bieri
Institutional Support
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)