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Reduction of Ocular Counter-Rolling by Adaptation to Space (8809A10)
Principal Investigator
Research Area:
Species Studied
Scientific Name: Macaca mulatta Species: Monkey Strain: Rhesus


Adaptation to microgravity presents a unique set of challenges because the input from the canals and otoliths are no longer in synergy. The average head angular movements in space do not change, however, stimulation of semicircular canals with pitch and torsional head movement at high frequency may be reduced due to a lack of locomotional forces. Consistent with this, little change has been found in the angular horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). On the other hand, the otolith organ, with its dependence on gravity, should undergo changes when in microgravity. A reinterpretation of otolith input has been proposed in which a linear force sensed by the otolith is interpreted as translational. The purpose of this experiment was to examine changes in the VOR and the hypothesis that there is a shift in the yaw axis orientation vector of velocity storage from a gravitational frame of reference to a body frame of reference.

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Dai M, McGarvie L, Kozlovskaya I, Raphan T, Cohen B. Effects of spaceflight on ocular counterrolling and the spatial orientation of the vestibular system. Experimental Brain Research, 1994, 102(1):45-56.

Dai M; Cohen B; Raphan T: Ocular Vergence Induced By Off-Vertical Axis Rotation (OVAR) Before and After Spaceflight. Neuroscience Abstract, 1995, 21:137.

Dai M; McGarvie L; Kozlovskaya I; Sirota M; Raphan T; Bernard C: Reduction of ocular counter-rolling by adaptation to space. Final Reports of the U.S. Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2229, Apr 1997.

Dai M; Raphan T; Kozlovskaya I; Cohen B: Modulation of ocular vergence by off-vertical yaw axis rotation in monkeys: Normal characteristics and effects of space flight. Vest. Res., 1996, 6(4S):S65.

Eye movements
Otolithic membrane
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Data Information
Data Availability
Archive is complete. No data sets are available for this experiment. Please Contact LSDA if you know of available data for this investigation.

Behavior, Nystagmus, primate, Scleral search coil, magnetic
Behavior, Ocular counter-rolling (OCR), vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), primate, Optokinetic stimulator
Behavior, Velocity storage, orientation vector angle, primate, Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), optokinetic after nystagmus
Behavior, Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), primate, Optokinetic stimulator., scleral search coils
Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR)

Mission/Study Information
Mission Launch/Start Date Landing/End Date Duration
Cosmos 2229 12/29/1992 01/10/1993 12 days

Additional Information
Managing NASA Center
Ames Research Center (ARC)
Responsible NASA Representative
Ames Research Center LSDA Level 3
Project Manager: Helen Stewart
Institutional Support
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Alternate Experiment Name
Protocol / Approach
Asynchronous control
Vivarium control
Proposal Date
Proposal Source
Hardware Items