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Morphologic and Metabolic Properties of Single Muscle Fibers in Hindlimb Muscles of the Rhesus (COS 2229-1)
Principal Investigator
Research Area:
Muscle physiology
Species Studied
Scientific Name: Macaca mulatta Species: Monkey Strain: Rhesus


Previous studies on rats have shown that within seven days of muscle unloading, there is considerable muscle atrophy and a small increase in the percentage of muscle fibers that express fast myosin isoforms mainly within slow muscles. These responses seem to be dependent on the function of the muscle and its original myosin composition. Two questions have arisen from these studies; 1) what are the physiological signals that trigger these changes and 2) how do these responses in rats compare to other animals? The purpose of this study was to further define the effects of spaceflight on selected morphology and metabolic properties of single muscle fibers from selected extensor and flexor muscles of the Rhesus monkey.

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Bodine-Fowler, S: Adaptive response of slow and fast skeletal muscle in the monkey to spaceflight [Final Report]. NASA contractor report 202120, 1996, pp. 11.

Bodine-Fowler, SC, Pierotti, DJ, Edgerton, VR: Morphologic and metabolic properties of single muscle fibers in hindlimb muscles of the rhesus. Final Reports of the U.S. Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2229 , Apr 1997.

Bodine-Fowler, SC, Pierotti, DJ, Talmadge, RJ: Functional and cellular adaptation to weightlessness in primates. Journal of Gravitational Physiology, vol. 2 (1), 1995, pp. P43-P46.

Bodine-Fowler, SC, Pierotti, DJ: Effect of spaceflight on muscle fibers in the Rhesus monkey [abstract]. American Society of Gravitational Space Biology Bulletin, vol. 7(1), Oct 1993, pp. 96.

Muscle fibers, fast-twitch
Muscle fibers, slow-twitch
Muscle, skeletal
Muscular atrophy
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Data Information
Data Availability
Archive is complete. No data sets are available for this experiment. Please Contact LSDA if you know of available data for this investigation.

Area, cross section, Fiber, gastrocnemius, muscle, primate, Immunochemistry, microscopy
Area, cross section, Fiber, soleus, muscle, primate, Immunochemistry, microscopy
Area, cross section, Fiber, tibialis anterior, muscle, primate, Immunochemistry, microscopy
Area, cross section, Fiber, vastus lateralis, muscle, primate, Immunochemistry, microscopy
Properties, type, Fiber, medial gastrocnemius, muscle, primate, Monoclonal antibody
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Mission/Study Information
Mission Launch/Start Date Landing/End Date Duration
Cosmos 2229 12/29/1992 01/10/1993 12 days

Additional Information
Managing NASA Center
Ames Research Center (ARC)
Responsible NASA Representative
Ames Research Center LSDA Level 3
Project Manager: Helen Stewart
Institutional Support
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Alternate Experiment Name
K-8-04 (2)
Protocol / Approach
Vivarium control
Proposal Date
Proposal Source
Hardware Items