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Circadian Rhythms and Temperature Regulation in Rhesus Monkeys During Space Flight (COS 2229-4)
Principal Investigator
Research Area:
Metabolism and nutrition
Species Studied
Scientific Name: Macaca mulatta Species: Monkey Strain: Rhesus


Living organisms have evolved under the unvarying level of Earth's gravity. Physiological and behavioral responses to changes in gravity are not completely understood. Exposure to altered gravitational environments has profound effects on physiological and behavioral systems, including body temperature regulation and circadian rhythms. One objective of this study was to examine the influence of microgravity on temperature regulation and circadian timekeeping systems in rhesus monkeys. Another objective was to find insights into the physiological mechanisms that produce these changes.

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Fuller CA, Hoban-Higgins TM, Griffin DW, Klimovitsky V, Alpatov A, Magedov V. Circadian rhythms and temperature regulation in rhesus monkeys during spaceflight. Final Reports of the U.S. Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2229, Apr 1997.

Fuller CA, Hoban-Higgins TM, Griffin DW, Murakami DM. Influence of Gravity on the Circadian Timing System. Advances in Space Research, 1994, 14 (8):399-408.

Fuller CA, Hoban-Higgins TM, Klimovitsky VY, Griffin DW, Alpatov AM. Primate circadian rhythms during spaceflight: results from Cosmos 2044 and 2229. Journal of Applied Physiology, 1996, 81(1):188-193.

Fuller CA, Hoban-Higgins TM, Murakami DM. Effects of altered gravitational environments on primate circadian rhythms. Biological Rhythm Research, 1995, 26(4):391.

Fuller CA. The effects of gravity on the circadian timing system. Journal of Gravitational Physiology, 1994, 1:P1-P4.

Body temperature
Body temperature regulation
Circadian rhythm
Electrodes, implanted
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Data Information
Data Availability
Archive is complete. No data sets are available for this experiment. Please Contact LSDA if you know of available data for this investigation.

Activity, Heart rate, primate, Implanted electrodes, 10 minute interval recording
Activity, Heart rate, rat, Implanted transmitter, continuous EKG, rate algorithm
Activity, motor, Primate, Jacket piezoelectric sensors (rhythm)
Temperature, Ambient, primate enclosure, Ambient temperature recorder (ATR), converter
Temperature, Axillary, primate, CR/T sensor, converter
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Mission/Study Information
Mission Launch/Start Date Landing/End Date Duration
Cosmos 2229 12/29/1992 01/10/1993 12 days

Additional Information
Managing NASA Center
Ames Research Center (ARC)
Responsible NASA Representative
Ames Research Center LSDA Level 3
Project Manager: Helen Stewart
Institutional Support
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Alternate Experiment Name
Protocol / Approach
Asynchronous control
Vivarium control
Proposal Date
Proposal Source