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EXPERIMENT INFORMATION

Early Development of a Gravity-Receptor Organ in Microgravity (8913083 1_3)
Principal Investigator
Research Area:
Developmental biology
Neurophysiology
Species Studied
Scientific Name: Cynops pyrrhogaster Species: Newt Strain: Japanese red-bellied

Description
OBJECTIVES:
This experiment aimed to determine the effects, if any, of a microgravity environment on the initial development of the gravity sensing portions of the inner ear. These organs contain sensory hair cells covered by a layer of dense calcium carbonate stones called otoconia. Particular emphasis was placed on the formation of otoliths, the masses on which gravitational and linear-acceleration forces act. If the growth of the otoliths is somehow regulated by their weight, their mass should be increased in reduced gravity. Furthermore, the otoconia are important for the proper functioning of many gravitactic reflexes in vertebrates and invertebrates. These reflexive circuits are established early in development and might be effected by exposure to microgravity.


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Publications
Chee OK, Maese AC, Nagaoka S, Yamashita M, Schaefer RL, Wiederhold ML: AAEU on IML-2: a new space hardware for experiments using aquatic animals [abstract]. ASGSB Bulletin, vol. 7(1), October 1993, pp. 86.

Hallworth R, Wiederhold ML: Atomic force microscopic observations of otoconia in the newt. Hearing Research, vol. 85(1-2), May 1995, pp. 115-121.

Hallworth RJ, Wiederhold ML, Campbell JB, Steyger PS: Atomic force microscope observations of otoconia in the newt. Hearing Research, vol. 85, 1995, pp. 115-121.

Hallworth RJ, Wiederhold ML, Campbell JB, Steyger PS: Atomic force microscope observations of the nanostructure of Otoconia. Association for Research in Otolaryngology Midwinter Research Abstract, vol. 18, 1995, pp. 10.

Hallworth RJ, Wiederhold ML, Campbell JB, Steyger PS: Nanometer-scale surface features of otoconia observed with the atomic force microscope. Journal of the Texas Society for Electron Microscopy, vol. 25(2), 1994, pp. 67.

Kashima I, Nishimura K, Nakamura K, Suda T, Koike H, Asashima M, Kurotani A, Yamashita M, Wiederhold ML: Contribution: Imaging technological and analysis of bone change in frog in space, FMPT and IML-2. Proceedings of the Eleventh Space Utilization Symposium , 1994, pp. 146-150.

Koike H, Nakamura K, Nishimura K, Izumi-Kurotani A, Yamashita M, Kashima I, Wiederhold ML, Asashima M: Formation of otolith during the development of Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. Proceedings of the Tenth Space Utilization Symposium, vol. 7, 1993, pp. 92-95.

Mogami I, Imamizo M, Yamashita M, Izumi-Kurotani A, Wiederhold ML, Koike H, Asashima M: Astronewt: Early development of newt in space. Advances in Space Research, vol. 17(6/7), 1995, pp. 257-263.

Nakamura K, Nishimura K, Okamoto Y, Kobayashi S, Kashima I, Koike H, Asashima M, Kurotani A, Yamashita M, Wiederhold ML: Contribution: Formation and development of otolith under microgravity. Proceedings of the Eleventh Space Utilization Symposium , 1994, pp. 138-141.

Nakamura K, Nishimura K, Okamoto Y, Kobayashi S, Kashima I, Koike H, Asashima M, Kurotanji A, Yamashita M, Wiederhold ML: Formation and development of otolith under microgravity. proceedings of the eleventh Space Utilization Symposium , 1994, pp. 138 - 141.

Nishimura K, Okamoto Y, Nakamuura K, Kobayashi S, Kashima I, Koike H, Asashima M, Kurotani A, Yamashita M, Wiederhold ML: Contribution: Fundamental study for quantitative analysis of otolith and bone change in IML-2 - Effect of anesthetic (MS-222) procedure under the magnification radiography. Proceedings of the Eleventh Space Utilization Symposium , 1994, pp. 135-137.

Pedrozo HA, Schwartz Z, Luther M, Dean DD, Boyan BD, Wiederhold ML: Mechanisms of adaptation to hypergravity in the statocyst of Aplysia californica. Hearing Res. , 1996, pp. 102, 51-62.

Pedrozo HA, Schwartz Z, Wiederhold ML: Aplysia statocyst in culture: a novel organ culture system. ASGSB meeting, San Francisco , October 19-22, 1994.

Pedrozo HA, Schwartz Z, Wiederhold ML: Aplysiastatocyst in culture: a novel organ culture system. ASGSB Bulletin, vol. 8(1), 1994, pp. 7.

Pedrozo HA, Wiederhold ML: Effects of 2xg on statoconia in Aplysia californica [abstract]. ASGSB Bulletin, vol. 7(1), October 1993, pp. 45.

Pedrozo HA, Wiederhold ML: Effects of hypergravity on the gravity sensing organ in larval Aplysia californica. ASGSB Bulletin, vol. 6(1), October 1992, pp. 46.

Steyger PS, Wiederhold ML, Batten J: Otoconial polymorph expression during larval development of Cynops pyrrhogaster, the Japanese red-bellied newt. Abstracts of the Seventeenth Midwinter Research meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, vol. 17, 1994, pp. 37.

Steyger PS, Wiederhold ML, Batten J: The developmental expression of otoconia [abstract]. ASGSB Bulletin, vol. 7(1), October 1993, pp. 48.

Steyger PS, Wiederhold ML: Extracellular matrix secretion during the development of the newt otolithic maculae. ASGSB, vol. 8(1), 1994, pp. 44.

Steyger PS, Wiederhold ML: Extracelluluar matrix secretion during the development of the newt otolithic maculae. American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology (ASGSB) Bulletin, vol. 8 (1), 1994, pp. 44.

Steyger PS, Wiederhold ML: The morphogenic features of otoconia during larval development of Cynops pyrrhogaster, the Japanese red-bellied newt. Hearing Research, vol. 84, 1995, pp. 61-71.

Steyger PS, Wiederhold ML: Visualization of newt aragonitic otoconial matrices using transmision electron microscopy. Hearing Res. , 1996, pp. 92 (1/2), 184-191.

Wiederhold M, Smithers GS, Steyger PS, Pedrozo HA: Development of vertebrate otoconia and molluscan statolith/statoconia: crystallography determined with Fourier transform infrared spectroscop. Abstracts of teh Eighteenth Midwinter Research Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, vol. 18, 1995, pp. 100.

Wiederhold ML, Gilpatric KD, Hejl RJ: Otolith systems in newt larvae reared in microgravity on IML-2. Eleventh Meeting of ASGSB, Washington, DC , October 25-29, 1995.

Wiederhold ML, Hejl RJ, Pedrozo HA: The statocysts in Biomphalaria glabrata. Proceedings of the CEBAS Workshops Annual Issue , 1995, pp. 69-72.

Wiederhold ML, Koike H, Kashima I, Asashima M: Non-invasive assessment of otoliths in newt larvae [abstract]. ASGSB Bulletin, vol. 7(1), October 1993, pp. 64.

Wiederhold ML, Larsen K, Yamashita M, Izumi-Kurotani A: Behavior of newt larvae in hyper- and hypogravity during parabolic flight [abstract]. ASGSB Bulletin, vol. 6(1), October 1992, pp. 66.

Wiederhold ML, Sharma JS: Development of the statocyst in Aplysia californica
I. Observations on statoconial development. Hearing Research, vol. 49 (1-3), Nov. 1990, pp. 63-78.

Wiederhold ML, Smithers GA, Trinh DV, Steyger PS: Developmental changes of otoconial crystallography in newt larvae. ASGSB, vol. 8(1), October 1994, pp. 7.

Wiederhold ML, Steyger PS, Steinfenck H, Soloway RD, Koike H, Kashima I: Development of crystallographic forms of otoconia in newt larvae. Association for Research in Otolaryngology Midwinter Research Abstract, vol. 17, 1994, pp. 38.

Wiederhold ML, Yamashita M, Asashima M: Development of the gravity-sensing organs in the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops Pyrrhogaster. Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Symposium on Space Technology and Science, vol. 18, 1992, pp. 2103 -2108.

Wiederhold ML, Yamashita M, Larsen K, Asashima M: Formation of otoconia in the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. Advance Space Research, vol. 14 (8), 1994, pp. 327 - 330.

Wiederhold ML, Yamashita M: Development of the otolith organs and semicircular canals in the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. Hearing Research, vol. 84(1-2), April 1995, pp. 41-51.

Wiederhold ML: 1992-1993 NASA Space Biology Accomplishments (Contribution: Early development of a gravity-receptor organ in microgravity). NASA TM Brief, vol. 267, October 1994.

Wiederhold ML: Calcite and aragonite in the amphibian inner ear: effects of rearing in microgravity. C. William Hall Seminar Series, The University of Texas Health Science Center , June 30, 1995.

Wiederhold ML: IML-2 Crew-PI Debrief/Experiment Results. European Space Operations Centre, Darmstadt, Germany , November 1-2, 1994.

Wiederhold ML: Otolith systems in the newt larvae reared in space on IML-2. Istituto Policaitedra Di Discipline Biologiche , November 10, 1995.

Wiederhold ML: Otoliths of newts reared in microgravity. AIAA Life Sciences and Space Medicine Conference , April 1995.

Wiederhold ML: Otoliths of newts reared in microgravity. AIAA Life Sciences and Space Medicine Conference Abstracts , 1995, pp. 272-273.

Wiederhold ML: The statocysts of Aplysia californica and Biomphalaria glabrata. Eleventh CEBAS Workshop Conference , September 1995.

Yamashita M, Wiederhold ML, Izumi-Kurotani A, Koike H, Asashima M, Mogami Y, Okuno M, Kawasaki Y, Komada S: Preparatory work for astronewt experiment. Proceedings of the Ninth Space Utilization Symposium in Tokyo, vol. 9, 1992, pp. 132- 134.

Wiederhold ML, Gao WY, Harrison JL, Hejl R.; Development of gravity-sensing organs in altered gravity., Gravit Space Biol Bull. 1997 Jun;10(2):91-6 pubmed.gov

Wiederhold ML, Pedrozo HA, Harrison JL, Hejl R, Gao W. ; Development of gravity-sensing organs in altered gravity conditions: opposite conclusions from an amphibian and a molluscan preparation., J Gravit Physiol. 1997 Jul;4(2):P51-4 pubmed.gov

Keywords
Calcium carbonate
Endolymphatic sac
Gravity perception
Hypergravity
Motor activity
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Data Information
Data Availability
Archive is complete. Some data sets are online.
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Some data sets are not publicly available but can be requested.
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Parameters
Activity, gain, Otolith-ocular reflex, newt, Eye counter-rotation, high magnification video (observation)
Morphology, Otoconia, vestibule, newt, Electron microscope (descriptive, counts)
Volume, Endolymphatic saccula and duct, newt, Microscopy, 3-D reconstruction
Volume, Otolith, endolymphatic, newt, Microscopy, 3-D reconstruction
Volume, Otolith, saccule, newt, Microscopy, 3-D reconstruction
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Mission/Study Information
Mission Launch/Start Date Landing/End Date Duration
STS-65 07/08/1994 07/23/1994 15 days

Additional Information
Managing NASA Center
Ames Research Center (ARC)
Responsible NASA Representative
Ames Research Center LSDA Level 3
Project Manager: Martha Del Alto
Institutional Support
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Protocol / Approach
Proposal Source
89-13 OSSA IML-2