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EXPERIMENT INFORMATION

Adaptations of Motor Control in Response to Spaceflight (8808A05)
Research Area:
Neurophysiology
Species Studied
Scientific Name: Macaca mulatta Species: Monkey Strain: Rhesus

Description
Objectives:

Although past experiments have proven that some muscles weaken and atrophy during space flight, the exact mechanism behind this is unknown. Three hypotheses help explain the phenomenon: 1) Some "normal" level of activity, which is lacking in microgravity, is needed to maintain normal muscle properties, 2) Force generated by a muscle is directly related to muscle fiber size, loss of which occurs in space, and 3) Hormonal deficiencies, such as those seen during microgravity exposure, contribute to a loss in muscle mass. This experiment will help to quantify the response of muscle to space flight.


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Publications
Falempin, M. et al.: Effect of Microgravity on the Electromyographic Activity of Two Upperlimb Muscles during a Goal-directed Movement and during Locomotion. Journal of Gravitational Physiology, vol. 7(1), Jan 2000, pp. S69-S70.

Hodgson, J.A. et al.: Daily Activation Levels in Rhesus Lower Limb Muscles. Journal of Gravitational Physiology, vol. 7(1), Jan 2000, p. S73.

Hodgson, J.A. et al.: Rhesus Leg Muscle EMG Activity during a Foot Pedal Pressing Task on Bion 11. Journal of Gravitational Physiology, vol. 7(1), Jan 2000, p. S87.

Recktenwald, M.R. et al.: Effects of Spaceflight on Rhesus Quadrupedal Locomotion after Return to 1G. Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 81(5), May 1999, pp. 2451-2463.

Recktenwald, M.R. et al.: Quadrupedal Locomotion in Rhesus Monkeys after 14 Days of Spaceflight. Journal of Gravitational Physiology, vol. 7(1), Jan 2000, p. S71.

Roy, R.R. et al.: Fiber Size and Myosin Phenotypes of Selected Rhesus Hindlimb Muscles After a 14-day Spaceflight. Journal of Gravitational Physiology, vol. 6(2), Oct 1999, pp. 55-62.

Roy, R.R. et al.: Fiber Size and Myosin Phenotypes of Selected Rhesus Lower Limb Muscles After a 14-day Spaceflight. Journal of Gravitational Physiology, vol. 7(1), Jan 2000, p. S45.

Roy, R.R. et al.: Myonuclear Number and Size of Rhesus Soleus Fibers After 14 Days of Actual or Simulated Flight. Journal of Gravitational Physiology, vol.7(1), Jan 2000, p. S63.

Roy, R.R. et al.: Size and Myonuclear Domains in Rhesus Soleus Muscle Fibers: Short-term Spaceflight. Journal of Gravitational Physiology, vol. 8(2), Dec 2001, pp. 49-56.

Hodgson, J.A., Wichayanuparp, S., Recktenwald, M.R., Roy, R.R., McCall, G., Day, M.K., Washburn, D., Fanton, J.W., Kozlovskaya I. and Edgerton, V.R. Circadian force and EMG activity in hindlimb muscles of Rhesus monkeys. J. Neurophysiol. 86:1430-1444, 2001. pubmed.gov

Edgerton, V.R., Roy, R.R., Recktenwald, M.R., Hodgson, J.A., Grindeland, R.E. and Kozlovskaya, I. Neural and neuroendocrine adaptations to microgravity and ground-based models of microgravity. J. Grav. Physiol. 7:45-52, 2000. pubmed.gov

Edgerton, V.R., and Roy, R.R. Invited review: Gravitational biology of the neuromotor systems: a perspective to the next era. J. Appl. Physiol. 89:1224-1231, 2000. [DOI]

Recktenwald MR, Hodgson JA, Roy RR, Riazanski S, McCall GE, Kozlovskaya I, Washburn DA, Fanton JW, Edgerton VR.Effects of spaceflight on rhesus quadrupedal locomotion after return to 1-g. Journal of Neurophysiology 81(5): 2451-63, 1999. pubmed.gov

Edgerton, V.R., Roy, R.R., Hodgson, J.A., Day, M.K., Weiss, J., Harkema, S.J., Dobkin, B., Garfinkel, A., Konigsberg, E., Koslovskaya, I. How the science and engineering of spaceflight contribute to understanding the plasticity of spinal cord injury. Acta Astronautica 47:51-62, 2000. pubmed.gov

Data Information
Data Availability
Archive is complete. No data sets are available for this experiment. Please Contact LSDA if you know of available data for this investigation.

Parameters
Area, cross section, Fiber, medial gastrocnemius, muscle, primate, Immunochemistry, microscopy
Area, cross section, Fiber, soleus, muscle, primate, Immunochemistry, microscopy
Area, cross section, Fiber, tibialis anterior, muscle, primate, Immunochemistry, microscopy
Area, cross section, Fiber, vastus lateralis, muscle, primate, Immunochemistry, microscopy,
Composition, Myosin heavy chain (MHC), medial gastrocnemius, muscle, primate
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Mission/Study Information
Mission Launch/Start Date Landing/End Date Duration
Bion 11 12/24/1996 01/07/1997 13.5 days

Additional Information
Managing NASA Center
Ames Research Center (ARC)
Responsible NASA Representative
Ames Research Center LSDA Level 3
Project Manager: Helen Stewart
Institutional Support
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Alternate Experiment Name
B11-4
Protocol / Approach
Proposal Date
6/24/1988
Proposal Source
88-OSSA-8