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Measuring, Monitoring, and Regulating Teamwork for Long Duration Missions (NNX13AM77G)
Principal Investigator
Research Area:
Behavior and performance
Species Studied
Scientific Name: Homo sapiens Species: Human


One of the critical human performance challenges for long-duration space missions is the maintenance of good team interaction processes in isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environments. The purpose of this research was to understand the factors that facilitate and maintain good team “processes” (e.g., collaboration and cohesion) that support effectiveness in ICE settings. There is considerable research that supports the relationship between team processes and work effectiveness. However, most of the substantial research on this topic has adopted a cross-sectional research design where a set of team member characteristics (i.e., personality, demographics) are collected at a single time point along with a set of team processes such as team cohesion, collaboration, coordination, and team effectiveness ratings. Although such data are informative of team functioning, they are unable to capture human interaction dynamics. This experiment was focused on understanding the factors that influence these dynamic cycles of interaction and, ultimately, to learn how to help team members maintain good collaboration, cohesion, and effectiveness.

There were three specific aims of this research:

  1. Benchmark long-duration team functioning in ICE analog environments.
  2. Extend engineering development of an unobtrusive monitoring technology (i.e., a wearable wireless sensor package).
  3. Develop teamwork interaction metrics and regulation support systems. In particular, investigators will be testing the development of the monitoring technology using the benchmarking data they have collected in previous lab and field studies to guide how they capture and analyze interactions in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) environment. They will be using various data collection methods to achieve these aims - daily diaries, event based sampling on interactions, and unobtrusive monitoring devices. Combined, these data will allow investigators to benchmark team cohesion and performance dynamics over the duration of the mission in an analog environment.

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Baard SK, Rench TA, and Kozlowski SWJ. Performance adaptation: A theoretical integration and review. Journal of Management. 2014. January; 40(1):49-99. [DOI]

Dong B and Biswas S. Wearable diet monitoring through breathing signal analysis. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2013:1186-9. []

Kozlowski SWJ, Chao GT, Chang C-H, and Fernandez R. Team dynamics: Using "big data" to advance the science of team effectiveness. In: Big data at work: The data science revolution and organizational psychology. SIOP Organizational Frontiers Series. New York, NY: Routledge Academic, 2015.

Pearce M, Powers CL, and Kozlowski SWJ. The development of project teams. In: Chiocchio F, Kelloway EK, Hobbs B (editors). The Psychology and Management of Project Teams. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Salas E, Tannenbaum SI, Kozlowski SWJ, Miller CA, Mathieu JE, and Vessey WB. Teams in space exploration: A new frontier for the science of team effectiveness. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 2015. June; 24(3):200-7. [DOI]

Miller CA. (Kozlowski SWJ, panel participant) Research in long-term human performance in space: Methods and implications. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. 2014. September; 58(1):72-6. 58th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Chicago, IL, October 27-31, 2014. [DOI]

Kozlowski SWJ. Advancing research on team process dynamics: Theoretical, methodological, and measurement considerations. Organizational Psychology. November 2015; 5(4):270-299. [DOI]

Golden SJ, Chang CH, Kozlowski SWJ. "Teams in isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environments: A review and integration." Journal of Organizational Behavior. 2018 Jul;39(6):701-15. [DOI]

Kozlowski SWJ. "Enhancing the effectiveness of work groups and teams: A reflection." Perspectives on Psychological Science. 2018 Mar;13(2):205-12. Epub 2017 Dec 12. [DOI]

Kozlowski SWJ, Chao GT. "Unpacking team process dynamics and emergent phenomena:Challenges, conceptual advances, and innovative methods." American Psychological Association. 2018 May-Jun;73(4):576-92. [DOI]

Task performance and analysis
Adaptation, psychological

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Data Information
Data Availability
Archive is complete. Data sets are not publicly available but can be requested.
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Performance perceptions
Social cohesion
Task cohesion

Mission/Study Information
Mission Launch/Start Date Landing/End Date Duration
Ground 05/01/2009 In Progress
HERA Campaign 1 02/27/2014 09/11/2014 Four 7-day missions
HERA Campaign 2 01/30/2015 08/27/2015 Four 14-day missions
HERA Campaign 3 01/26/2016 10/19/2016 Four 30-day missions
HERA Campaign 4 05/06/2017 06/18/2018 Four 45 days One 23 days
NEEMO 18 07/21/2014 07/29/2014 9 days

Human Research Program (HRP) Human Research Roadmap (HRR) Information
Crew health and performance is critical to successful human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Human Research Program (HRP) investigates and mitigates the highest risks to human health and performance, providing essential countermeasures and technologies for human space exploration. Risks include physiological and performance effects from hazards such as radiation, altered gravity, and hostile environments, as well as unique challenges in medical support, human factors, and behavioral health support. The HRP utilizes an Integrated Research Plan (IRP) to identify the approach and research activities planned to address these risks, which are assigned to specific Elements within the program. The Human Research Roadmap is the web-based tool for communicating the IRP content.

The Human Research Roadmap is located at:

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Additional Information
Managing NASA Center
Johnson Space Center (JSC)
Responsible NASA Representative
Institutional Support
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Proposal Date
Proposal Source
2012 Crew Health NNJ12ZSA