There are three specific aims of this research:
This experiment is in progress. However, preliminary results are available.
Antarctica: To date, investigators have completed data collection from 26 individuals who wintered over in the Antarctic. Participants spent between 9-15 months in their stations and reported a total of 2,333 daily surveys. Descriptive data showed that individuals have different dynamic patterns in terms of their daily reports on different individual and team-level indicators over time. These patterns can be differentiated into four categories: rock solid, uni-varier, multi-varier, or stabilizer. Individuals with a rock solid pattern did not vary in their responses to most of the questions over time. Individuals who are uni-variers primarily varied on one variable, such as daily task or social cohesion. Individuals who are multi-variers varied daily in their responses across a range of indicators. This may be because they perceived more variability in the environment or because they were more impacted by external factors in the environment. Finally, individuals who are stabilizers initially varied in many variables, but then achieved and maintained a stable equilibrium across the mission.
Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA): Investigators found that based on the data collected from HERA Campaign 1 (106 daily reports from 16 participants), different teams had different experiences throughout the mission and responded differently to the same environmental stressors (e.g., sleep deprivation, communication delays). In addition, analysis of agreement between crewmembers’ ratings on team processes indicated that within the same team, individual members do not always view their team or their shared experiences the same way. Finally, across the four missions in Campaign 1, there was no clear pattern of reactions to experiences across teams that can be identified, despite the seemingly similar exposure to the simulated stimuli. These preliminary results show that the continued data collections with more teams in the HERA environment will be informative of how different teams and individuals experience these environments.
Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS): Overall, the five-person crew from mission 1 provided a total of 485 daily surveys. Random coefficient modeling showed that team processes were reciprocally related to one another. Positive autoregressive effects were found for the indicators for individual members’ psychosocial health (e.g., positive and negative affect) and other team process and effectiveness indicators (e.g., cohesion, conflict, performance) from the previous day to the next. In addition, cohesion played a major role in affecting other team processes, such as positively impacting performance and affect. Finally, improvements in certain team processes and individual psychosocial well-being (i.e., cohesion, negative affect, and positive affect) from one day to the next benefitted team effectiveness on the next day.
NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) Mission 18: Investigators conducted data collection from a crew of four astronauts and two habitat technicians for NEEMO 18. The roughly one week mission was completed in July 2014. The aquanauts represented a mix of international space agencies, so the crew was multicultural. The NEEMO data have largely been helpful for feedback on user reactions to the badges.
Extend Engineering Development of an Unobtrusive Monitoring Technology: The monitoring technology under development has been successfully validated in the laboratory and is now under evaluation in NASA mission simulations. Primary objectives for engineering development centered on: (1) improved packaging and enhancing robustness of the wearable interaction monitoring badges and (2) detection of swallow monitoring using the wearable sensor system.
Packaging and robustness: Investigators have developed a 3-D printed case for the wearable badge and for the radio access point. The case contributes to robustness in terms of the badge's abilities to withstand rough handling in variable environmental conditions. The new access point is also capable of all the sensing possible using the badges.
Swallow monitoring: Investigators have developed a wearable solid food intake monitoring system that analyzes human breathing signal and swallow sequence locality for solid food intake monitoring. Food intake is identified by the way of detecting a person’s swallow events. The system works based on a key observation that the otherwise continuous breathing process is interrupted by a short apnea during swallowing. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) is first used for detecting such apneas in breathing signals collected from a wearable chest-belt. The resulting swallow detection is then refined using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based mechanism that leverages known locality in the sequence of human swallows. Using the developed system investigators are experimentally able to demonstrate the effectiveness of such two-stage SVM-HMM based mechanism for solid food intake detection via analyzing breathing signal and human swallow sequence locality. Apnea detection also has potential as an additional data modality for assessing stress during team member interactions. As this badge capability develops, it will be integrated into the phased lab validation process.
Flexible badge identifier: The embedded software on the badges and on the access point has been upgraded to support dynamic determination of badge identification. In the earlier version, each badge had to be hardwired with a unique badge identifier. In contrast to the earlier version, the newly developed software allows each badge to be allocated an identifier by the access point at start time (when the system is booted). This feature brings a huge operational advantage in that any badge can be used with any identifier by turning it on in a given sequence.
|Mission||Launch/Start Date||Landing/End Date||Duration|
|HERA Campaign 1||02/27/2014||09/11/2014||Four 7-day missions|
|HERA Campaign 2||01/30/2015||08/27/2015||Four 14-day missions|
|HERA Campaign 3||01/26/2016||10/19/2016||Four 30-day missions|
|HERA Campaign 4||05/06/2017||06/18/2018||Four 45 days One 23 days|
|NEEMO 18||07/21/2014||07/29/2014||9 days|