As Flown on Cosmos 2044
A set of radiation dosimetry and spectrometry measurements were conducted using passive detector systems located inside and outside the Cosmos 2044 spacecraft. Various versions of the different components of these systems were flown in different arrangements on other Cosmos missions, such as Cosmos 936 and 1129 Radiation Detector Packets and Cosmos 1887 Radiation Dosimeters. All detectors for outside the spacecraft were mounted on aluminum plates and held in "clamshell" style containers which were opened after reaching orbit and closed before re-entry to prevent heating of detectors in the atmosphere.
Thermoluminescent Detector Assembly (TDA): TDAs are designed to measure the depth dose under very thin shielding and help determine what fraction of the dose was due to low energy electrons versus heavy charged particles. A total of twelve thermoluminescent detector (TLD) stacks are attached to the outside of the spacecraft. Each stack was composed of both thin (0.02395 g/cm2) and thick (0.2322 g/cm2) TLD extruded chips. This TLDs are used to a depth of 0.5175 g/cm2, and thick TLDs at greater depths. A double-window of 7.5 micrometers thick Kapton polyimide films, both aluminized to an optical density of three, shield the TLDs from sun and space.
Sealed Plastic Stacks (SPS): Two hermetically sealed flight units containing plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) and nuclear emulsion stacks measure the low energy, heavy particle (excluding electrons) LET (linear energy transfer) spectra under very thin shielding, as a function of depth. PTND stacks are 3 cm in diameter and include sets of CR-39 and Cronar polyester detectors. Emulsion stacks are enclosed with ATR-4 temperature probes in thin stainless steel cylinders of the same diameter. The units are placed outside the spacecraft.
Activation Foil Assembly (AFA): The outside foil assembly measures neutron fluences outside the spacecraft. The two flight units contain 59Co activation foils and PNTD films. An aluminum frame with aluminized Kapton double-windows are placed above the detectors, while the sides of the units were left open to vacuum. PNTDs of Cronar polyester allow comparison between those open to vacuum and those hermetically sealed (SPS, above). The inside foil assembly uses a single 59Co activation foil to measure neutron fluences inside the spacecraft.
Fission Foil Assembly (FFA): Fission foils of 232Th, in conjunction with solid-state nuclear track detectors of muscovite mica, measure high energy (>1MeV) neutron fluxes and dose equivalent rates. Each of the two flight units are composed of four 232Th fission foils with mica (1.27 cm diameter) in an aluminum and Lexan polycarbonate holder. The arrangement of the foils is mica/232Th/mica, with lead discs of 0.5 mm thickness placed on each side for reduction of radiation from the 232Th foils. The units are placed outside the spacecraft.
Neutron Detector Assembly (NDA): Layers of 6LiF-TLDs in conjunction with CR-39 PNTDs measure the thermal (<0.2 eV) and resonance (0.2eV