During the ROI Begovaya Dorozhka (BD-1) experiment, kinematics data were collected with a six-camera infrared video motion capture system (eMotion, Inc., Milan, Italy). Reflective markers were placed on the right side of the subject during zero-g trials and loft side of the subject during 1-G trials with the assumption that leg motion was symmetrical. Markers were placed to approximate the joint centers of the shoulder, hip, knee, ankle, and top of the foot at the base of the third metatarsal. An additional marker was placed on the anterior-lateral thigh arbitrarily so it did not lie on the axis connecting the knee center to the hip center. During 0-G trails, the hip joint center was often obscured by the harness and external load connection. Therefore, an additional marker was placed on the lateral-rear of the waist belt. 3-D position data were collected at 120 Hz.
During the MuscleLab ROI experiment, investigators used the SMART Optoelectric Motion Analysis System (BTS Bioengineering, Padova, Italy (Formerly eMotion Inc.) to measure the velocity of movement during Bench Press (BP) and Leg Press (LP). Barbell motion data was collected at 120 Hz by video cameras interfaced with the SMART-ELITE Motion Capture System. Two lightweight, reflective markers were placed centrally on the bar or sled between the locations where the subjects would naturally place their hands or feet. Before and after each data collection session, the camera positions were calibrated to defined points in the laboratory reference frame. Data were collected starting before the first upward movement of the bar or sled until after the bar was replaced in the rack. Raw three-dimensional (3-D) coordinate data were conditioned with a Butterworth filter at an optimal cutoff frequency selected using the algorithm of Challis (Challis, 1995). After the data were filtered, 3-D velocities and accelerations were computed using finite central differences.
Kinematic data were collected at 60 Hz with a multiple-camera infrared video motion capture system (SMART-eMotion, BTS Bioengineering SPA., Milan, Italy). At the beginning of each testing session, the area in which locomotion was to occur was calibrated to within 1 mm of re-prediction accuracy. Due to the configuration of the testing facilities, motion capture was not performed on the same side of the body for all treadmill conditions. Cameras were positioned to view the subjects left side during LAB-TM and Begovaya Dorozhka (BD-1) trials and the right side during treadmill with vibration isolation and stabilization (TVIS) motorized and non-motorized trials. Reflective markers were affixed to the subject using double-sided adhesive tape to approximate the joint centers of the hip, knee, ankle, and top of the foot at the base of the third metatarsal. Additional markers were placed on the lateral neck approximately level with the C7 vertebrae and on the posterior heel. The markers allowed the body to be modeled as four rigid segments: trunk, thigh, shank and foot.
Three-dimensional position data from reflective markers placed upon the subject were collected at 60 Hz with eight cameras (Smart Elite motion capture system, BTS Bioengineering SPA., Milan, Italy). At the beginning of each testing session, the area in which locomotion was to occur was calibrated to within 0.44 ± 0.03 mm of re-prediction accuracy. All three-dimensional data were expressed relative to an inertial reference frame that was established during calibration. A reference trial was collected after calibration but before the subject arrived at the lab to establish a treadmill reference frame. An electronic pulse was output by the force treadmill upon the initiation of data collection. The signal was recorded by the motion capture system and was used to synchronize the data during post processing.
During the EMG Kinematics Study, lower body and trunk kinematics were measured at 60 Hz with a multi-camera motion capture system (Smart Elite motion capture system, BTS Bioengineering Spa, Milanese, IT). Prior to each day of data collection, the motion capture system was calibrated. The three-dimensional positions of reflective markers were recorded relative to an inertial reference frame that was established during calibration. A reference trial was collected after calibration but before the subject arrived at the lab to establish a treadmill reference frame. Reflective markers were attached to the subjects' left side. A static trial was recorded prior to any locomotion trials while the subject stood upright with each joint in the anatomical neutral position. On the eZLS, the subject straightened the legs and locked their ankles in the neutral position as an investigator gently pushed them to contact the treadmill. The static trial was used to determine the zero positions for each joint angle.
During the EORS T2DC9 Study, markers were placed on the subject’s upper and lower thigh, the upper and lower shank, and the heel and toe. The body was modeled as three rigid, linked segments. This configuration allowed each segment to be represented as the vector connecting the proximal marker to the distal marker. Motion data was collected by multiple 60 Hz video cameras interfaced with the SMART-ELITE Motion Capture System (eMotion S.r.l.,11 Padova, Italy) while the subjects walked and ran on the T2 treadmill. Small, lightweight, retro-reflective markers were placed at the appropriate locations on body segments to allow for a 3-D reconstruction of the body. All markers were affixed to the subject with non-abrasive hypoallergenic double-sided adhesive tape. The motion capture system tracked the location of all markers during each trial.
During each exercise session, the motions of the subject’s arms, legs, and upper body were measured using a motion capture system with 12 cameras. Reflective markers were placed on the subjects with double-sided adhesive tape. The markers were attached to their clothing or directly to the skin.
Motion capture data were collected at 250 Hz with a twelve-camera motion capture system (SMART-D, BTS Bioengineering SPA, Milanese, IT). Cameras were strategically placed at different locations and heights in order to maximize marker views. Retroreflective markers were placed on the subjects’ lower and upper body. Markers were placed bilaterally on the shoes, clothing, or skin over specific anatomical locations. Markers were placed on each leg at the feet (heel, over the distal third metatarsal, 10 proximal fifth metatarsal), lateral and medial malleoli, lateral and medial knee level with tibial plateau, and lateral greater trochanter heads. Banks of three markers attached to a rigid plastic frame were attached to the lateral shanks and thighs. Pelvic markers included the right and left anterior iliac spines, the right and left posterior iliac spines, and the right and left iliac crests. Markers were placed on the torso to approximate the xiphoid process (sternum), clavicular notch, spinous process of the 10th thoracic vertebrae, and spinous process of the 7th cervical vertebrae. Markers were also placed on both arms at the acromio-calvicular joint, on the upper arm arbitrarily between the elbow and shoulder joint, on the lateral epicondyle approximating the elbow joint axis, on the forward arbitrarily between the elbow wrist, on both ends of a four inch dowel attached to the posterior wrist, and on the dorsum of the hand just below the head of the second metacarpal. For three of the subjects, and additional marker was placed on the medial foot at the lateral first metatarsal joint.
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