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Cosmos Primate-BIOS

The Cosmos spacecraft contained two monkey BIOS capsules, which provided life support and experiment hardware. The orientation of the two capsules within the spacecraft allowed the monkeys to view each other. Monkeys were placed within restraint couches in each capsule. A remotely controlled chest restraint pad, a lap restraint plate with a leg divider, and upper and lower arm restraint straps were used to maintain each monkey in an appropriate, comfortable posture and to provide adequate support upon ground impact. The degree of thoracic restraint could be modified by ground command. Unidirectional air flow moved excreta toward a centrifugal collector underneath the restraint couch. The monkey could activate the paste diet and juice dispensers located in each capsule by operating bite switches. The monkey's access to these dispensers could also be controlled remotely from the ground. A camera mounted within each capsule monitored inflight animal behavior. A 16:8 light/dark cycle was provided in the monkey compartments during the flight. A psychomotor system within each capsule was used to test the responses of the monkey subjects to various stimuli. The monkeys were trained to press a lever whenever a light signal was presented. The strength required to press the lever could be determined from the EMG signals recorded from limb muscles. Vestibular tests conducted inflight included monitoring the eye-tracking response of the monkeys to a semi-circular array of programmed lights located in front of each monkey. A sensor attached to the skull cap of one monkey registered that a correct response had been made when the sensor was pointed directly at the light on the panel. Juice rewards were presented for correct responses. Vestibular tests also required subjecting the animals to a slow sinusoidal motion in the head-to-foot direction. This movement was produced by a motorized oscillator attached to the restraint couch.

Versions of this Hardware
+ As Flown on Cosmos Missions