During their stay, the Expedition Five crew helped Shuttle crewmembers install two additional truss elements, which will support solar arrays, cooling radiators, a railroad capable of moving the station's Canadarm2 along its length, and other equipment. The STS-112 flight of Atlantis brought the first starboard truss segment (S1). Endeavour, on the STS-113 crew rotation, brought the first segment for the beam's portside (P1).
The first of two scheduled spacewalks was performed by Whitson and Korzun wearing Russian Orlan space suits and was operated from the Russian Pirs docking compartment. The astronauts installed a series of debris panels on the Zvezda service module. The panels, stored outside the station during the STS-111 mission, are designed to protect Zvezda from micro-meteor and debris strikes. They also removed an old tray from the Kromka experiment on Zvezda's exterior and replaced it with a new tray. Kromka exposes materials to the harsh environment of space. These materials are then studied upon return to Earth.
The second spacewalk conducted by Korzun and Treschev, also using the Pirs and Russian Orlan space suits, was performed to replace liquid flow control valve panels on the exterior of Zarya. One panel of the MPAC/SEED experiment sample holders was removed, and two others were relocated. Additionally, two ham radio antennas were installed at the rear of Zvezda bringing the total to four. Fairleads for space suit tethers were also installed on handrails of Zarya.
Science conducted during the Expedition Five mission included research in bioastronautics, physical science, space product development, and space flight. Many of the experiments continued from the Expedition Four mission. However, many new experiments were also performed in the physical and biological sciences. These new experiments are expected to contribute to human knowledge in materials, plant science, commercial biotechnology, and long-term effects of space flight on humans.
Life sciences experiments and payloads that began during Expedition Five were:
Life sciences experiments continuing into Expedition Five from earlier missions were:
Two new scientific facilities were brought to the station on the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module for installation in the U.S. Laboratory Destiny. The first, EXPRESS Rack 3, will provide power, fluids, cooling, data interfaces, and other utilities to experiments mounted within it. The second is the Microgravity Glovebox designed to offer a sealed environment in which to perform experiments.
The Expedition Five crew returned home aboard STS-113 on December 7, 2002.