Mission or Study ID: Soyuz 5S
International Space Station (ISS)
The Soyuz 5S TMA-1 mission, also known as the Soyuz BTF (Belgian Taxi Flight), launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan for docking on October 31, 2002, with the International Space Station (ISS). Soyuz 5S was the first flight of the new Soyuz TMA spacecraft, modified from the current TM version for the International Space Station (ISS) program to accommodate taller and smaller crewmembers. The crew consisted of Russian Commander Sergei Zalyotin, European Space Agency (ESA) Flight Engineer Frank DeWinne from Belgium and Russian Flight Engineer Yuri Lonchakov.
The Soyuz TMA-1 docked with the Pirs Docking Compartment to begin eight days of joint operations. Science research during the mission included 17 experiments as part of the ESA Odissea payload and four Russian experiments. Several microgravity experiments were performed, as well as many in the biomedical sciences. Among these experiments were:
AQUARIUS (AQU-B) with three experiments: VITAMIN-D (VTD), which characterized the effect of weightlessness on the action mechanism of vitamin D in osteoblasts; RHO-SIGNALS (RHO), studied the effect of weightlessness on specific signal molecules in human fibroblasts; and RAMIROS (RMR), characterized the effects of heavy particle radiation on mammalian tissue in microgravity.
MESSAGE (MSS) to study the effects of microgravity on bacterial gene expression.
SYMPATICO (SYM) to test a hypothesis explaining changes in the sympathoadrenal activity during spaceflight.
NEUROCOG (COG) researched the integration of visual, vestibular, and propriocetive cues in the perception of body position in space.
CARDIOCOG (CAR) studied the effects of microgravity on the cardiovascular system expressed in the peripheral arteries, and the vegetative regulation of arterial blood pressure and heart rate.
Crewmembers on this mission also participated in certain studies performed on the space station, including certain Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSOs). A DSO is a NASA-sponsored experiment that require minimal crew time, power and stowage. Biomedical DSOs focus on operational concerns, including space motion sickness, cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle loss, changes in coordination and balance strategies, radiation exposure, pharmacokinetics and changes in the body's biochemistry.
The taxi crew boarded the Soyuz TM-34 return craft that had been docked to the space station since April, and undocked on November 9, 2002, for a landing in Kazakhstan. A fresh Soyuz crew return vehicle is delivered the ISS every six months to provide an assured return capability for station residents in the unlikely event a problem would force them to come home prematurely.