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MISSION/STUDY INFORMATION

Mission or Study ID:   STS-35
Program:
Shuttle Program
Spacecraft/Location:
Columbia
Launch/Start Date:
12/02/1990
Landing/End Date:
12/11/1990
Duration:
9 days
STS-35 Crew Patch

Description
After several launch postponements, STS-35 finally lifted off on December 02, 1990, with a crew of seven. The crewmembers were Commander Vance D. Brand, Pilot Guy S. Gardner, Payload Specialist Ronald A. Parise, and Mission Specialists Jeffrey A. Hoffman, John M. Lounge, Robert A. Parker, and Samuel T. Durrance.

The primary objective of STS-35 was the continuous observation of the celestial sphere in ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy using an observatory consisting of four telescopes: the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT), Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE), Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) and Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT). Ultraviolet telescopes mounted on Spacelab elements in the cargo bay were to be operated in shifts by the flight crew. Loss of both data display units (used for pointing telescopes and operating experiments) during the mission impacted the crew-aiming procedures and forced ground teams at Marshall Space Flight Center to aim the ultraviolet telescopes aided by fine-tuning performed by the flight crew. BBXRT, also mounted in cargo bay, was directed from the outset by ground-based operators at Goddard Space Flight Center, so was not affected by the trouble.

Other experiments included the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), a ground-based experiment to calibrate electro-optical sensors at Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) in Hawaii. Also, the crew conducted a Space Classroom Program: Assignment: The Stars, to spark student interest in science, math and technology. The crew experienced problems dumping waste water due to a clogged drain, but managed to use spare containers. The mission was cut short one day due to impending bad weather at the primary landing site, Edwards Air Force Base in California. Science teams at Marshall and Goddard Space Flight Centers estimated that 70 percent of the planned science was accomplished during the mission.

Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSOs)
Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSOs) were performed on this mission. ADSO is a NASA-sponsored investigation that is performed by SpaceShuttle crewmembers, who serve as the test subjects. These studies aredesigned to require minimal crew time, power and stowage. Biomedical DSOsfocus on operational concerns, including space motion sickness,cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle loss, changes in coordination andbalance strategies, radiation exposure, pharmacokinetics and changes in thebody's biochemistry.

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