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International Space Station (ISS)

The International Space Station (ISS) is a global undertaking of tremendous scientific and engineering magnitude. Beginning in 1998, 15 nations began collaborating to construct, operate, and utilize an orbiting space laboratory with capabilities far surpassing all previous space platforms. These nations include the United States, Russia, Europe, Japan, and Canada. European countries are represented through membership in the European Space Agency (ESA). Current ESA members cooperating on the ISS are Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.

The ISS provides scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs a unique research facility in which to perform complex, long-duration experiments. In addition to its six dedicated laboratory modules, the ISS supports a crew of three astronauts and provides external truss and exposed facility sites to accommodate a broad range of attached payloads for technology, Earth system science, and space science experiments.

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Related Experiments
Links
  + rHealth One Flight Demonstration (rHealth_Demo)
  + A Non-intrusive Ocular Monitoring Framework to Model Ocular Structure and Functional Changes due to Long-term Spaceflight (80NSSC20K1831)
  + Cognitive Process for 3-D Orientation Perception and Navigation in Weightlessness (Cogni)
  + Study of Cardiovascular Deconditioning Under Weightlessness Conditions (CardioScience)
  + Cardiovascular Responses During Rest and Exercise, and Evaluation of Energy Inputs During Exercise (CCE)
  + Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)
  + Optimization of Root Zone Substrates (ORZS) for Reduced-Gravity (AHST LADA-MIS)
  + Foot Reaction Forces During Space Flight (96-E318)
  + Promoting Sensorimotor Response Generalizability (98-E120)
  + Subregional Assessment of Bone Loss in the Axial Skeleton in Long-Term Space Flight (96-E343)
  + Spaceflight-Induced Changes in Non-Shivering Thermogenesis and Effects on Bone in Mice (NNX15AL15G)
  + Determining Muscle Strength in Space-Flown Caenorhabditis elegans (NNX15AL16G)
  + Muscle Tone in Space (Myotones)
  + Medical Proteome Analysis of Osteoporosis and Bone Mass-related Proteins using the Kibo Japanese Experiment Module of International Space Station (Medical_Proteomics)
  + Time Perception in Microgravity (Time_Perception)
  + Rodent Research 3 (RR3) (ARC00XX198)
  + Rodent Research 4 (RR4) (ARC00XX199)
  + Rodent Research 5 (RR5) (ARC00XX203)
  + Rodent Research 2 (RR2) (ARC00XX197)
  + Rodent Research 9 (RR9) (ARC00XX200)
  + Sporesat 2 Mission: Investigating Biophysical Mechanisms of Plant Gravisensing Using a Lab-On-A-Chip Approach (NNX15AB86A)
  + Characterizing the Effects of Spaceflight on the Candida albicans Adaptation Response (NNX15AB37G)
  + Team Task Switching and Entrainment on the International Space Station: Exploring Multiteam Membership, Systems, and Networks to Understand and Enable Crew Functioning and Effectiveness [Team Task Switching] (Team_Task_Switching)
  + Effects of Microgravity on Lymphatic Structure and Function (NNX15AG54G)
  + Metabolic Diagnostic in Space by Full Wearable Respiratory Analysis (MetabolicSpace)
  + The Detrimental Effects of Long Duration Spaceflight on Human Wayfinding: The Behavioural and Neural Mechanisms Study International (Wayfinding)
  + Bio-Monitor Commissioning (Bio_Monitor)
  + Bio-Analyzer Commissioning (Bio_Analyzer)
  + Nutritional Monitoring for the International Space Station (NutrISS)
  + Acoustic Diagnostics (Acoustic_Diagnostics)
  + Characterizing Arabidopsis Root Attractions-2 (KSC00XX05)
  + Rodent Research 6 (RR6) (ARC00XX201)
  + Muscle Atrophy of Muscle Sparing in Transgenic Mice (CASIS RR1) (ARC00XX182)
  + Spacetex-2 (Spacetex2)
  + The Space Environment Causes Acceleration of Vascular Aging: Roles of Hypogravity, Nutrition and Radiation (Vascular_Aging)
  + Multisensory Real-Time Space Telerobotics (ANALOG_1)
  + Quantitative CT and MRI-based Modeling Assessment of Dynamic Vertebral Strength and Injury Risk Following Long-Duration Spaceflight (NNX16AP89G)
  + The Effect of Microgravity on Neuronal Cytoskeletal and Intracellular Trafficking (80NSSC19K0715)
  + Microbial social behavior and heritable genetic or epigenetic changes affected by the spaceflight environment: Understanding the evolution of microbial interactions during spaceflight (80NSSC19K1597)
  + Inflight Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Responses to Medications Commonly Used in Spaceflight (Rx_Metabolism)
  + Spaceflight Standard Measures: Cognition (SSM_Cognition)
  + Spaceflight Standard Measures: Microbiome (SSM_Microbiome)
  + Spaceflight Standard Measures: Personality Questionnaire (SSM_Person_Question)
  + Spaceflight Standard Measures: Sensorimotor (SSM_Sensorimotor)
  + Spaceflight Standard Measures: Sleep Quality/ Team Questionnaire (SSM_Sleep_Quality)
  + Spaceflight Standard Measures: Actigraphy (SSM_Actigraphy)
  + Spaceflight Standard Measures: Cellular Profile (SSM_Cell_Profile)
  + Concepts for Simplified Stowage (Stowage)
  + Risk of Visual Impairment and Intracranial Hypertension after Space Flight: Evaluation of the Role of Polymorphism of Enzymes Involved in One-carbon Metabolism (One_Carbon)
  + NASA Biochemical Profile Project (Biochem_Profile)
  + Influence of Sensory Integration on the Neural Processing of Gravito-Inertial Cues (99-E370)
  + Bioreactor Technology Transfer (H30993D)
  + Physiological Parameters that Predict Orthostatic Intolerance After Spaceflight (Aorta)
  + Skin B - Skin Physiological Changes During Long Duration Space Flight (Skin_B)
  + Advanced Clothing System On-Orbit Astronaut Preference Study (IVA_Clothing_Study)
  + Airway Nitric Oxide in Space (Airway_Monitoring)
  + Innovative and Highly Functional Fabrics for Humans in Space and on Earth (SPACETEX)
  + Advanced Exploration Systems Autonomous Mission Operations Project: Crew Autonomy Experiment - 1 (AMO)
  + Acquisition of Data About the Radiological, Electromagnetic and Different Physical Environments on Board ISS, and Their Effects on the Safety of the Crew, Space Equipment and Materials (Brados)
  + Condition of Peridontal Tissues in Space Flight (Paradont)
  + Characteristics of Pharmacological Responses (Absorption, Distribution and Elimination of Acetominophen) in Long Duration Space Flight (Farma)
  + Development of a Method of Operational Prediction of Work Load on Crew Piloting (Prognoz)
  + Dynamics of the Main Factors of Cardiac Function, of Central and Regional Circulation in Rest and during the Influence of Lower Body Negative (Cardio_ODNT)
  + Fluid and Electrolyte Metabolism and Hormonal Regulaltion of Fluid Volume (Diurez)
  + Mechanisms of Action and Influence, and Effectiveness of Various Methods of Prophylaxis Directed Toward Prevention of Disturbances of the Human Locomotion System in Weightlessness (Profilaktika)
  + Determination of Intracellular and Extracellular Fluid Volume in Humans in Space Flight (Sprut_MBI)
  + Fluid Shifts Before, During and After Prolonged Space Flight and Their Association with Intracranial Pressure and Visual Impairment (Fluid_Shifts)
  + SLINK: move Short bLind plus shrINK - Moving Blind and Throwing an Imaginary Ball (Blind_Imagined)
  + In-flight Demonstration of Portable Load Monitoring Devices-Phase I: XSENS ForceShoe<sup>TM</sup> (Force_Shoes)
  + Motion Perception: Vestibular Adaptation to G-Transitions (ILSRA_2004_260)
  + Effects of Long-Duration Spaceflight on Venous and Arterial Compliance in Astronauts (NCC958CA03402)
  + Vehicle NHV and Habitability Assessment (Habitability)
  + Effects of Long-Duration Microgravity on Fine Motor Skills: 1-year ISS Investigation (Fine_Motor)
  + Recovery of Functional Performance Following Long Duration Space Flight (Field_Test)
  + Haptics Feedback Control in Microgravity (Haptics_1)
  + Strain-gauge Plethysmographic Analysis of the CErebral DRainage Experimented and Assessed in the Micro-gravitational Setting (Drain_Brain)
  + Straight-Ahead in Microgravity (Straight_Ahead)
  + Dextrous Manipulation in Microgravity (GRIP)
  + Anomalous Long Term Effects in Astronauts' - Dosimetry (ALTEA_Dosi)
  + Non-Invasive Assessment of Intracranial Pressure for Space Flight and Related Visual Impairment (IPVI)
  + Crew Scheduling Tools (SPIFe_Scheduling)
  + Assessment of the Effect of Space Flight on Bone Quality Using Three-Dimensional High Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (HR-pQCT) (TBone)
  + Multi-Omics Analysis of Human-Microbial Metabolic Cross-Talk in the Space Environment (Multi_omics)
  + Perceptual-Motor Deficits in Space (9903081)
  + Cardiac and Vessel Structure and Function with Long-Duration Space Flight and Recovery (Vascular_Echo)
  + Cutaneous Hypersensitivity and Balance Control in Humans (Hypersole)
  + Sleep Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure on ISS12 (Sleep_ISS12)
  + Study of Mammalian Pluripotent Stem Cells in Microgravity (NNX15AB38G)
  + Study of Lunar Dust and Lunar Simulant Activation, Monitoring, Solution and Cellular Toxicity Properties (Lunar_Dust_Cell)
  + miRNA Expression Profiles in Cultured Human Fibroblasts in Space (ARC00XX147)
  + Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) Commissioning Part 2 (MARES_Comm_ 2)
  + Image Reversal In Space (IRIS)
  + Interactions: Monitoring of Space Crew Interactions During Extended Space Flight (Vzaimodeystviye)
  + Subjective Vertical Analyzation and Visceral Receptors: On the Contribution of Visceral Receptors to the Sense of Subjective Vertical (SVA)
  + Stress, Cognition and Physiological Response During Space Flight (Cognispace)
  + Cytogenetic Effects of Ionizing Radiation in Peripheral Lymphocytes of ISS Crewmembers (Chromosome_2)
  + Assessment of the Efficiency of the Use of Telemedicine Technologies On-Board ISS (BIMS)
  + Oxygen Delivery System (O2_Delivery_Sys)
  + Fruit Fly Lab-01 (ARC00XX169)
  + Investigation of Host-Pathogen Interactions, Conserved Cellular Responses, and Countermeasure Efficacy During Spaceflight using the Human Surrogate Model Caenorhabditis elegans (NNX10AO52G)
  + The Effects of Microgravity on Cardiac Function, Structure and Gene Expression using the Drosophila Model (NNX13AN38G)
  + Dose Tracker Application for Monitoring Crew Medication Usage, Symptoms, and Adverse Effects during Missions (Dose_Tracker)
  + Novel Explorations Into the Interactions Between Light and Gravity Sensing in Plants - Seedling Growth-1 (ARC00XX133)
  + Novel Explorations Into the Interactions Between Light and Gravity Sensing in Plants - Seedling Growth-2 (ARC00XX144)
  + Novel Explorations Into the Interactions Between Light and Gravity Sensing in Plants - Seedling Growth-3 (ARC00XX145)
  + ISS Microbial Observatory (Microbial Tracking-1A) (19_12829_26_1A)
  + ISS Microbial Observatory (Microbial Tracking-1B) (19_12829_26_1B)
  + Shuttle Condensate Collection for the International Space Station (RME 1331)
  + Microbial Risk Assessment (MRA)
  + Fractional Gravity Studies of Sensory Mechanism in Root Phototropism - a Completion of TROPI-1 (TROPI-2) (9902079 2_2)
  + Genotypic and phenotypic responses of Candida albicans to spaceflight (ARC00XX140)
  + Biochemical Status of Humans in Long Duration Space Flight (Biotest)
  + Individualized Real-Time Neurocognitive Assessment Toolkit for Space Flight Fatigue (Cognition)
  + Salivary Markers of Metabolic Changes during Space Missions (Bone_Muscle_Check)
  + Wearable System for Sleep Monitoring in Microgravity (Wearable_Monitoring)
  + Space Radiation Effects on the Central Nervous System (Alteino)
  + Assessing Telomere Lengths and Telomerase Activity in Astronauts (Telomeres)
  + The Marrow Study (Bone Marrow Adipose Reaction: Red or White?) (Marrow)
  + Cultures, Values, and Environmental Adaptation in Space (At_Home_In_Space)
  + Heartbeat Monitoring (HBM)
  + Demonstration of Head Mounted Display (HMD) System for Crew (HMD)
  + Hand Posture Analyzer (HPA)
  + Soyuz Landing Injury Risk Characterization (Soyuz_Impact_Risk)
  + Regulation and Biomechanics of Respiration in Space Flight (Dykhanie)
  + European Space Agency Nitric Oxide - 1 (ESANO_1)
  + European Space Agency Nitric Oxide - 2 (ESANO_2)
  + Sensory (Taste) Evaluation of Malaysian Food on Earth and in Space (FIS)
  + Anomalous Long Term Effects in Astronauts' Central Nervous System-GAP (ALTEA_GAP)
  + Anomalous Long Term Effects in Astronauts' Central Nervous System - Shield (ALTEA_Shield)
  + Retrospective Analysis of Inflight Exercise Loading and Health Outcomes (Inflight_Loading)
  + Effects of Microgravity on the Haemopoietic System: A Study on Neocytolysis (Neocytolysis)
  + ESA Active Dosimeter: A Medical Science System- Development for Operational Real-time Active Dosimetry of Astronauts and Radiation Environment On-board ISS (ESA_Active_Dosimeter)
  + Effect of Spaceflight on Herpesvirus Genome Stability and Diversity (ISS_HSV)
  + SkinCare (SkinCare)
  + Morphofunctional Characteristic of Blood Cells and the Intensity of Erythropoiesis in Humans by the Influence of Factors of Space Flight (Gematologia)
  + Garments for Orbital Activities in WeightLessness and Vestibular Adaptation to G-Transitions: Motion Perception (GOAL)
  + Vegetative (Autonomic) Regulation of the Cardio-Respiratory System of Humans in Conditions of Weightlessness (Pulse)
  + Rodent Research 1 (ARC00XX146)
  + Foundational In Vivo Experiments on Osteocyte Biology in Space (NNX15AL13G)
  + Effects of Spaceflight on Gastrointestinal Microbiota in Mice: Mechanisms and Impact on Multi-System Physiology (NNX15AL05G)
  + Risk of Intervertebral Disc Damage after Prolonged Space Flight (IVD)
  + Directed Attention Brain Potentials in Virtual 3-D Space in Weightlessness (Neurocog)
  + Miniature Exercise Device-2 (MED_2)
  + Personal CO2 Monitor (Personal_CO2_Monitor)
  + Female Reproductive Health: Space Flight Induced Ovarian and Estrogen Signaling Dysfunction, Adaptation, and Recovery (NNX15AB48G)
  + ISS Microbial Observatory (Microbial Tracking-1C) (19_12829_26_1C)
  + Genotypic and phenotypic responses of Candida albicans to spaceflight (NNX12AH29G)
  + The Role of P21/CDKN1a Pathway in Microgravity-Induced Bone Tissue Regenerative Arrest - A Spaceflight Study of Transgenic P21/CDKN1a Null Mice in Microgravity (ARC00XX175)
  + Osteogenic Differentiation of Somatic Stem Cells in Space: A Study Investigating the Role of CDKN1a/p21 on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, and Regeneration in Microgravity (ARC00XX176)
  + Experimental Evolution of Bacillus subtilis Populations in Space; Mutation, Selection and Population Dynamics (ARC00XX177)
  + Free Radical Theory of Aging in Space (ARC00XX178)
  + Investigating the Physiology and Fitness of an Exoelectrogenic Microorganism Under Microgravity Conditions (ARC00XX179)
  + Biosensors for Exploration Medical System (Biosensors_EMS)
  + Bonner Ball Neutron Detector (BBND)
  + Dosimetric Mapping (96-E094)
  + Crewmember and Crew-Ground Interactions During International Space Station Missions (96-E096)
  + Effects of Altered Gravity on Spinal Cord Excitability (96-E082)
  + Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation (96-E057)
  + Organ Dose Measurement Using the Phantom Torso (93-E039)
  + Effect of Prolonged Space Flight on Human Skeletal Muscle (96-E400)
  + Chromosomal Aberrations in Blood Lymphocytes of Astronauts (99-E010)
  + Test of Midodrine as a Countermeasure Against Postflight Orthostatic Hypotension (SMO 006)
  + Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) on ISS (Reaction)
  + Effect of Microgravity on the Cornea of a Refractive Surgery Subject (Visual_Acuity)
  + A Study of Radiation Doses Experienced by Astronauts During EVA (96-E011)
  + The Effects of EVA and Long-Term Exposure to Microgravity on Pulmonary Function (96-E044)
  + Effect of Microgravity on the Peripheral Subcutaneous Veno-Arteriolar Reflex in Humans (96-E290)
  + Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight (9802394)
  + A Comprehensive Characterization of Microorganisms and Allergens in Spacecraft Environment (99-E049)
  + Bioavailability and Performance Effects of Promethazine (PMZ) During Space Flight (DSO 490)
  + Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity (ILSRA-2001-083)
  + Behavioral Issues Associated with Long Duration Space Missions: Review of Astronaut Journals (ILSRA-2001-104)
  + Space Flight Induced Reactivation of Epstein-Barr Virus (98-E129)
  + A New Model for Understanding Spaceflight Induced Muscle Atrophy (ARC00XX7)
  + Physical Fitness Evaluation Oxygen Uptake Measurement (PFEOUM)
  + Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Control on Return from International Space Station (CCISS) (E117)
  + Validation of On-Orbit Methodology for the Assessment of Cardiac Function and Changes in the Circulating Volume Using Ultrasound and Braslet-M Occlusion Cuffs (SDTO_17011_UR)
  + Cardiac Atrophy and Diastolic Dysfunction During and After Long-Duration Spaceflight: Functional Consequences for Orthostatic Intolerance, Exercise Capacity, and Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmias (99-E377)
  + Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance (Functional Task Test) (FTT)
  + Analyzing Interferometer for Ambient Air (AHST-ANITA)
  + Transgenic Plant Biomonitors of Space Flight Exposure (9802299)
  + Analysis of a novel sensory mechanism in root phototropism (TROPI) (9902079)
  + Bisphosphonates As A Countermeasure To Space Flight Induced Bone Loss (SMO 021)
  + Validation of Procedures for Monitoring Crewmember Immune Function (SMO 015)
  + Stability of Nutrition Compounds (SMO Stability)
  + Evaluation of Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Submaximal Estimates of VO2max Before, During, and After Long Duration International Space Station Missions (VO2max)
  + Otolith Assessment During Postflight Re-adaptation (ILSRA_2004_235)
  + Assessment of Endurance Capacity by Gas Exchange and Heart Rate Kinetics During Physical Training (EKE)
  + Mycological Evaluation of Crew Exposure to ISS Ambient Air (Myco)
  + Biomedical Analyses of Human Exposed to a Long Term Space Flight (Hair)
  + Mental Representation of Spatial Cues (3D-Space) (ILSRA_2001_088)
  + The Effect of Long-Term Microgravity Exposure on Cardiac Autonomic Function by Analyzing 24-hours Electrocardiogram (Biorhythms)
  + SOdium LOading in Microgravity (ILSRA_2001_028)
  + Bodies in the Space Environment: Relative Contributions of Internal and External Cues to Self-Orientation, during and After Zero Gravity Exposure (ILSRA_2004_106)
  + Validation of On-Orbit Digital Holter ECG Monitoring (JAXA_Holter)
  + Early Detection of Osteoporosis in Space (EDOS)
  + Effect of Gravitational Context on EEG Dynamics: A Study of Spatial Cognition, Novelty Processing and Sensorimotor Integration (Neurospat)
  + Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency-Education Payload Observation (JAXA_EPO)
  + Study of Low Back Pain in Crewmembers During Space Flight (ESA_04_E023)
  + Long Term Microgravity: A Model for Investigating Mechanisms of Heart Disease with New Portable Equipment, and Mechanisms of Activation of Sympathoadrenal Activity in Humans during Spaceflight (99_081_MAP)
  + Validation of Centrifugation as a Countermeasure for Otolith Deconditioning During Spaceflight (Spin)
  + A New Harness for Use with Exercise Countermeasures - Validation of Improved Comfort and Loading with the Center for Space Medicine (CSM) Harness (SDTO_17013_U)
  + Thermoregulation in Humans during Long-Term Space Flight (Thermolab)
  + Scaling Body-Related Actions in the Absence of Gravity (Passages)
  + Neuroendocrine and Immune Responses in Humans during and After Long Term Stay at ISS (IMMUNO)
  + Spinal Elongation and its Effects on Seated Height in a Microgravity Environment (Spinal)
  + Dietary Intake Can Predict and Protect Against Changes in Bone Metabolism during Space Flight and Recovery (ProK)
  + IntraVenous Fluid GENeration for Exploration Missions (IVGEN) (IVGEN)
  + Cardiovascular Health Consequences of Long-Duration Space Flight (VASCULAR)
  + Vascular Echocardiography (Vessel_Imaging)
  + The Space Voice of the Open Mind (CHUON)
  + Space Headaches: Incidence and Characteristics (Space_Headaches)
  + Unwinding in the ISS (Unwinding)
  + Blood Pressure Measurement Instrument (BMI)
  + Sonographic Astronaut Vertebral Examination (Spinal_Ultrasound)
  + Occupational Risk Surveillance for Bone: Pilot Study-Effects of In-flight Countermeasures on Sub-regions of the Hip Bone (Hip_QCT)
  + Defining the Relationship Between Biomarkers of Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress and the Risk for Atherosclerosis in Astronauts During and After Long-duration Spaceflight (Cardio_Ox)
  + 24-Hour Pattern of Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Weightlessness (Circa)
  + A Low-Intensity Mechanical Countermeasure to Prohibit Osteoporosis in Astronauts During Long-Term Spaceflight (ILSRA-2001-079)
  + The Elucidation of the Re-adaptation on the Attitude Control after Return from Long- term Space Flight (Synergy)
  + Risk of Intervertebral Disc Damage after Prolonged Space Flight (NNX10AM18G)
  + Stability of Pharmacotherapeutic Compounds (SMO_Stability_Pharm)
  + Examination of the Influencing Factors of Space Flight on Autonomic Regulation of Blood Circulation, Respiration and Cardiac Contractile Function in Long Duration Space Flight (Pneumocard)
  + Study of the Impact of Long-term Space Travel on the Astronaut's Microbiome (Microbiome)
  + RaDI-N 2 Neutron Field Study (RaDI_N2)
  + Myotendinous and Neuromuscular Adaptation to Long-term Spaceflight: Determinants and Time Courses. (Sarcolab)
  + Spaceflight Effects on Neurocognitive Performance: Extent, Longevity, and Neural Bases (NeuroMapping)
  + Prospective Observational Study of Ocular Health in International Space Station Crews (Ocular_Health)
  + Medical Consumables Tracking -GRC (Medical_Tracking)
  + Cognitive Cardiovascular Experiment (Cardiocog_2)
  + Cell Signaling Molecules of Human Skeletal Muscle Maintained by Exercise Countermeasure in Spaceflight (Muscle_Biopsy)
  + Astronaut's Energy Requirement for Long-Term Spaceflight (ILSRA_2004_144)
  + ELaboratore Immagini TElevisive-Space 2 (ELITE_S2)
  + Assessing the Impact of Communication Delay on Behavioral Health and Performance: An Examination of Autonomous Operations Utilizing the International Space Station (Comm_Delay)
  + Structured Exercise Training as Countermeasure to Space Flight-Induced Orthostatic Intolerance (Ortho_Tolerance)
  + The Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Microgravity on Salivary Markers of Innate Immunity (Salivary_Markers)
  + Quantification of In-flight Physical Changes - Anthropometry and Neutral Body Posture (NBP) (Body_Measures)
  + Crews Health: Investigation on Reduced Operability (CHIRO)
  + Anomalous Long Term Effects in Astronauts' Central Nervous System (ALTEA)
  + Cardiac Adapted Sleep Parameter Electrocardiogram Recorder (CASPER)
  + Association of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Parameters of Optic Tracts and Cerebral White Matter Tracts with Visual Impairment and Structural Changes of the Eyes and Optic Nerves in Long-Duration Microgravity Exposure (NNX13AH23G)
  + Study for Evaluating the Impact of Continuous Consumption of Probiotics on Immune Function and Intestinal Microbiota in Astronauts under Closed Microgravity Environment (Probiotics)
  + Effects of Microgravity on Cerebral Arterial, Venous, and Lymphatic Function: Implications for Elevated Intracranial Pressure (NNX16AC28G) (NNX13AN33G)
  + Functional Immune Alterations, Latent Herpesvirus Reactivation, Physiological Stress and Clinical Incidence Onboard the International Space Station (Functional_Immune)
  + Human Cerebral Autoregulation during Long-duration Spaceflight (Cerebral_Autoreg)
  + Influence of Microgravity on the Production of Aspergillus Secondary Metabolites (IMPAS) - a Novel Drug Discovery Approach with Potential Benefits to Astronauts' Health (NNX15AB49G)
  + Proteomics Analysis of Arabidopsis Seedlings in Microgravity (NNX13AM48G)
  + Cell Signaling in Undifferentiated Cells - Perceiving the Environment without Specialized Tissues (NNX12AK80G)
  + BRIC: Mapping Spaceflight-Induced Hypoxic Signaling And Response (NNX12AK79G)
  + Development of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance by Opportunistic Bacterial Pathogens during Human Space Flight (NNX12AN70G)
  + Mechanisms for Plant Adaptation to Space Environment (NNX12AN71G)
  + Bacterial, Archaeal, & Fungal Diversity of the ISS--HEPA Filter System (ARC00XX194)
  + Spaceflight-Induced Hypoxic/ROS Signaling (NNX14AT25G)
  + Using Brachypodium distachyon to Investigate Monocot Plant Adaptation to Spaceflight (NNX14AT23G)
  + Pick-and-Eat Salad-Crop Productivity, Nutritional Value, and Acceptability to Supplement the ISS Food System (ARC00XX183)
  + An Integrated Omics Guided Approach to Lignification and Gravitational Responses: The Final Frontier (NNX15AG56G)
  + GeneLab Process Verification Test (KSC00XX03)
  + Bone Recovery Time Course Following Long Exposure to Microgravity (EDOS_1)
  + Personal Radiation Shielding for Interplanetary Missions (Rad_Shield_Demo)
  + Matroshka-1 (Matroshka1)
  + International Space Station (ISS) Urine Monitoring System (UMS) Test Flight (ISS_UMS)
  + Story Time from Space: Effects on the Human Body (Effects_Human_Body)
  + Interactive Orbit-to-Ground Shared-Autonomy Robotic Teleoperation (Interact_ESA)
  + ECHO: Tele-operated ultrasound system (ECHO)
  + Using Water Bears to Identify Biological Countermeasures to Stress During Multigenerational Spaceflight (NNX15AB44G)
  + Assessment of the Time Courses of Leg Muscle Strength and Performance Losses during Prolonged Spaceflight using MARES (NNX16AF63G)
  + Implantable nanochannel system for the controlled delivery of therapeutics for spaceflightinduced muscle atrophy (NVCA) (CASISRR6)
  + Systemic Therapy of NELL-1 for Spaceflight-Induced Osteoporosis (CASISRR5)
  + Assessment of myostatin inhibition to prevent skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness in mice exposed to long-duration spaceflight (CASISRR3)
  + Transcriptional and Post Transcriptional Regulation of Seedling Development in Microgravity (NNX15AB07G)
  + Genome and Epigenome Analysis of Circulating Free DNA and RNA-based Liquid Biopsy (Liquid_Biopsy)
  + MyoGravity Multidisciplinary Approach to the Analysis of the Functional Alterations Induced by Microgravity in Human Satellite Cells, and Study of Possible Countermeasures (MyoGravity)
  + Microbial Analysis of International Space Station (ISS) Air, Surfaces and Water (ISS_Micro_Analysis)
  + Augmented Reality Application for Maintenance, Inventory and Stowage (Augmented_Reality)
  + Exercise Countermeasures for Knee and Hip Joint Degradation during Spaceflight (NNX15AB50G)
  + Bone Regeneration in Spaceflight (CASISRR4)
  + EveryWear: A Personal Assistant for Astronauts (EveryWear)
  + BRIC: Plant Mechanical Signaling During Spaceflight (NNX13AM50G)
  + Utilizing the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) on the International Space Station (ISS) to Uncover Microgravity's Impact on Root Development and Cell Wall Architecture (NNX12AM94G)
  + Molecular Biology of Growth and Cell Remodeling within the Spaceflight Environment (NNX12AN69G)
  + Evolution of Genotypic and Phenotypic Changes in Yeast Related to Selective Growth Pressures Unique to Microgravity (NNX12AM93G)
  + Epigenetic Change in Arabidopsis thaliana in Response to Spaceflight - Differential Cytosine DNA Methylation of Plants on the ISS (NNX14AT24G)
  + Microgravity and Magnetic Fields - Directional Root Growth and Gene Expression (NNX10AP91G)
  + The Impact of Real Microgravity on the Proliferation of Human Neural Stem Cells and derived-Oligodendrocytes (NNX15AB43G)
  + Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Study (Sprint)
  + Biomechanical Analysis of Treadmill Exercise on the International Space Station (Kinematics_T2)
  + A Simple In-flight Method to Test the Risk of Fainting on Return to Earth after Long-duration Space Flight (BP_Reg)
  + Effect of Microgravity on Cartilage Morphology and Biology (Cartilage)
  + Core Temperature and Circadian Rhythms in Humans During Long-Term Space Flight (Circadian_Rhythms)
  + Perspective Reversible Figures in Microgravity (Reversible_Figures)
  + Plastic Alteration of Vestibulo-Cardiovascular Reflex and its Countermeasure (VC_REFLEX)
  + The Effect of Long-term Microgravity Exposure on Cardiac Autonomic Function by Analyzing 48-hours Electrocardiogram (Biological_Rhythms48)
  + Factors Contributing to Food Acceptability and Consumption, Mood, and Stress on Long-term Space Missions (NNX12AE56G)
  + Sensitivity Modulation of Different T-Cells Activation Pathways by Microgravity (PADIAC) (ARC00XX59)
  + Mechanisms and Functional Consequences of Protein Kinase C Isoform Translocation Inhibition in Monocytes Exposed to Microgravity (PKinase) (ARC00XX60)
  + The Effect of Spaceflight on Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants With Compromised Signaling (ARC00XX48)
  + Investigations of the Plant Cytoskeleton in Microgravity With Gene Profiling and Cytochemistry (ARC00XX49)
  + Wireless Crew Communication (Wireless_Comm)
  + Testing Solid State Lighting Countermeasures to Improve Circadian Adaptation, Sleep, and Performance during High Fidelity Analog and Flight Studies for the International Space Station (Lighting_Effects)
  + Characterizing Plant Gravity Perception Systems (NNX15AG55G)
  + Veggie Hardware Validation Test (VEG-01) (KSC00XX02)
  + Gravitational References for Sensorimotor Performance: Reaching and Grasping (GRASP)
  + Gravitational References for Sensorimotor Performance: Reaching and Grasping – Commissioning Only (cGRASP)
  + Demonstration of JEM Water Recovery System (JWRS) (JEM_Water_Recovery)
  + International Space Station Microbial Observatory of Pathogenic Virus, Bacteria, and Fungi Project (ISS_MOP)
  + Long Duration Mission Operational Evaluation of Gravity Loading Countermeasure SkinSuit (SkinSuit)
  + Vascular Health in Space: MicroRNAs in Microgravity (NNX15AB55G)
  + Effect of the Hybrid Training Method on the Disuse Atrophy of the Musculoskeletal System of the Astronauts Staying in the International Space Station for a Long Term-initial Verification in ISS (Hybrid_Training)
  + Study of the Typological Characteristics of ISS Crew Operators Activity at the Stages of Long Term Space Flight (Tipologia)
  + ISS Non-Invasive Sample Investigation and Results Transmission To Ground With The Utmost Easiness (In_Situ_Bioanalyzer)
  + Collection of Immune/Stress-related Tissues from Mice Flown on ISS (NNX15AB45G)
  + Space Flight Environment Induces Remodeling of Vascular Network and Glia-Vascular Communication in Mouse Retina (NNX15AB41G)
  + Yeast Colony Survival in Microgravity Depends on Ammonia Mediated Metabolic Adaptation and Cell Differentiation (NNX13AN32G)
  + Pille-MKS: Determine the Value of the Accumulated Radiation Dose in a Visiting Crewmember (Pille_ISS)
  + Cardiovascular Adaptation to Weightlessness (Rhythm)
  + Physiological Functions (Cardiorespiratory) of Humans Using Contactless Methods During Sleep in Long Duration Space Flight (Sonokard)
  + Eye Tracking Device (ETD)
  + Blood and Oxidative Stress (Blood)
  + Does Spaceflight Alter the Virulence of a Natural Parasite of Drosophila? (NNX15AB42G)
  + Global Transcriptome Profiling to Identify Cellular Stress Mechanisms Responsible for Spaceflight-Induced Antibiotic Resistance (NNX14AT38G)
  + Cell Biology Tech Demo (CBTD) (ARC00XX148)
  + Ames student Fruit-Fly Experiment (AFEx) (ARC00XX170)
  + Effect of Spaceflight on Herpesvirus Genome Stability and Diversity (NNX15AL04G)
  + High Dimensional Biology to Understand the Functional Response of Salmonella to Long-Term Multigenerational Growth in the Chronic Stress of Microgravity (NNX15AL06G)
  + Spaceflight Induced Neuroplasticity Studied with Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods (Brain_DTI)
  + Space Adaptation Effects on Immune System Impacts Reproductive Function and Mammary Gland Development Across Generations (NNA15BA16I)
  + Monitoring the Cellular Immunity by In Vitro Delayed Type Hypersensitivity Assay on the ISS (MoCISS)
  + Myotendinous and Neuromuscular Adaptations to Long-Term Spaceflight (Sarcolab_3)
  + Assessment of Operator Proficiency Following Long-Duration Spaceflight (Manual_Control)
  + Food Acceptability, Menu Fatigue, and Aversion in ISS Missions (Food_Acceptability)
  + Evaluation of vestibular dysfunction induced by a long-term stay in the ISS (Labyrinth)
  + One Carbon Metabolism: Expanded Polymorphism Evaluation (One_Carbon_Expan)
  + Molecular Biology of Plant Development in the Space Flight Environment (CARA) (KSC00XX04)
  + Assessment of nutritional value and growth parameters of space-grown plants (KSC00XX07)
  + Distribution of Tissues (KSC00XX06)
  + The Effect of Long Duration Hypogravity on the Perception of Self-Motion (VECTION)
  + Pilot study with the Crew Interactive MObile companioN (CIMON) (Mobile_Companion)
  + Varicella Zoster Virus Shedding After Antiviral Drug (Valacyclovir) Treatment in Antarctic Expeditioners (Anti_Viral)
  + Quantifying selection for pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance in bacteria and fungi on the ISS – a microbial tracking study (80NSSC19K1604)
  + Effects of Prolonged Spaceflight on DNA Methylation Age (DNAmAge)
  + Culture-based Environmental Monitoring of Crop-based Space Food Systems (Veggie_Monitoring)
  + Spaceflight Standard Measures: Biochemical Measures (SSM_Biochem_Measures)
  + Spaceflight Standard Measures: Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (SSM_cIMT)