Research Subheader

Bion Cosmos Flight Research

The Bion Cosmos Program included a series of missions dedicated to biological experimentation aboard the Cosmos biosatellite, an unmanned spacecraft flown and developed by the Russian Space Agency. For over 2 decades beginning in 1975, the United States participated in these missions to: investigate mechanisms for physiological, biochemical and behavioral changes associated with the space environment; identify and evaluate potential hazards to man during long-duration space flight; study ways of supporting long-duration manned space flight in the areas of artificial gravity, radiation shielding and life-support; and use the microgravity environment to determine the role of gravity in terrestrial biological phenomena. These unmanned satellites carried a wide variety of biological specimens such as rats and monkeys into space to carry out various investigations and achieve the objectives of the mission.

Photo Gallery

Related Experiments
Links
  + Adaptation to Microgravity of Oculomotor Reflexes (AMOR): Otolith-Ocular Reflexes (8809A08)
  + Rhesus Monkey Metabolism During Space Flight: Measurement of Energy Expenditure Using the Doubly Labeled Water (2H2 18O DLW) Method (8809A09)
  + Reduction of Ocular Counter-Rolling by Adaptation to Space (8809A10)
  + Functional Neuromuscular Adaptation to Spaceflight (8809A13 1_2)
  + Calcium Metabolism and Correlated Endocrine Measurements in Primates During Cosmos 2229 (8809A17)
  + Growth Hormone Regulation, Synthesis, and Secretion in Microgravity: III. Plasma Analysis (COS 1887-11)
  + Vertebral Body Strength of Rat Spinal Columns (COS 1129-1)
  + Growth and Development of Carrot Cells and Embryos in Space (COS 1129-10)
  + Bone Resorption in Rats During Spaceflight (COS 1129-11)
  + Fetal and Neonatal Rat Bone and Joint Development Following In Utero Spaceflight (COS 1129-12)
  + Long Term Effects of Weightlessness on a Biological System-Isoenzyme Analysis: Supplemental Report (COS 1129-13)
  + Space Radiation Dosimetry Aboard Cosmos 1129: U.S. Portion of the Experiment (COS 1129-14)
  + Quantitative Analysis of Selected Bone Parameters: Supplemental Report 1: Effects of Weightlessness on Osteoblast (COS 1129-15)
  + Quantitative Analysis of Selected Bone Parameters: Bone Elongation Rate and Bone Mass in Metaphysis of Long Bones (COS 1129-16)
  + Effects of Weightlessness on Body Composition in the Rat (COS 1129-17)
  + The Effect of Spaceflight on Osteogenesis and Dentinogenesis in the Mandibles of Rats (COS 1129-18)
  + The Effect of Spaceflight on Osteogenesis and Dentinogenesis in the Mandible of Rats: Supplement 1: The Effects of Spaceflight on Alveolar Bone Remodeling in the Rat Mandible (COS 1129-19)
  + Quantitative Analysis of Selected Bone Parameters: Trabecular Spacing and Orientation in the Long Bones (COS 1129-2)
  + Quantitative Analysis of Selected Bone Parameters: Mineralization in the Long Bones (COS 1129-3)
  + Rat and Quail Ontogenesis (COS 1129-4)
  + Studies of Specific Hepatic Enzymes and Liver Constituents Involved in the Conversion of Carbohydrates to Lipids in Rats Exposed to Prolonged Spaceflight (COS 1129-5)
  + Long-Term Effects of Weightlessness on a Biological System (COS 1129-6)
  + Automatic Analysis of Muscle Fibers from Rats Subjected to Spaceflight (COS 1129-7)
  + Studies of the Nasal Mucosa (COS 1129-8)
  + Quantitative Analysis of Selected Bone Parameters (COS 1129-9)
  + Developmental Morphology of the Eye, Vestibular System, and Brain in 18-Day Fetal and Newborn Rats Exposed In Utero to Null Gravity During the Flight of Cosmos 1514 (COS 1514-1)
  + Early Postnatal Development of Rats Exposed In Utero to Microgravity (COS 1514-2)
  + Synchronization of Primate Circadian Rhythms in Space (COS 1514-4)
  + Calcium Metabolism and Correlated Endocrine Measurements in Primates (COS 1514-5)
  + Structural Changes and Cell Turnover in the Rat's Small Intestine Induced by Spaceflight (COS 1887-1)
  + Growth Hormone Regulation, Synthesis, and Secretion in Microgravity: I. Somatotroph Physiology (COS 1887-10)
  + Gravity and Skeletal Growth: IV. Intervertebral Disc Swelling Pressure Associated with Microgravity (COS 1887-13)
  + Morphometric Studies of Atrial Granules and Hepatocytes: II. Atrial Granular Accumulations (COS 1887-14)
  + Morphometric Studies of Atrial Granules and Hepatocytes: I. Morphometric Study of the Liver (COS 1887-15)
  + Effect of Spaceflight on Levels and Function of Immune Cells (COS 1887-16)
  + Gravity and Skeletal Growth: I. Gravity and Skeletal Growth (COS 1887-17)
  + Morphological and Biochemical Examination of Heart Tissue: I. Effects of Microgravity on the Myocardial Fine Structure of Rats Flown on Cosmos 1887 - Ultrastructure Studies (COS 1887-18)
  + The Effect of Cosmos 1887 Flight on Spermatogonial Population and Testosterone Level in Rat Testes (COS 1887-19)
  + Morphological and Biochemical Examination of Heart Tissue: II. Cellular Distribution of Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Regulatory Subunits in Heart Muscle of Rats Flown on Cosmos 1887 (COS 1887-20)
  + Morphological and Biochemical Investigations of Microgravity-Induced Nerve and Muscle Breakdown: II. Biochemical Analysis of EDL and PLT Muscles (COS 1887-21)
  + Pineal Physiology in Microgravity: Relation to Rat Gonadal Function (COS 1887-22)
  + Growth Hormone Regulation, Synthesis, and Secretion in Microgravity: II. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Hypothalamic Hormones (COS 1887-23)
  + Biomedical, Biochemical, and Morphological Alterations of Muscle and Dense, Fibrous Connective Tissues During 14 Days of Spaceflight (COS 1887-24)
  + Effects of Zero Gravity on Myofibril Protein Content and Isomyosin Distribution in Rodent Skeletal Muscle (COS 1887-25)
  + Metabolic and Morphologic Properties of Muscle Fibers After Spaceflight (COS 1887-26)
  + Analysis of Radiographs and Biosamples from Primate Studies (COS 1887-27)
  + Trace Element Balance in Rats During Spaceflight (COS 1887-28)
  + Gravity and Skeletal Growth: II. Morphology and Histochemistry of Bone Cells and Vasculature of the Tibia from Cosmos 1887 (COS 1887-3)
  + Radiation Dosimetry and Spectrometry (COS 1887-30)
  + Actin mRNA and Cytochrome-C mRNA Concentrations in the Triceps Brachia Muscle of Rats (COS 1887-31)
  + Morphometric and EM Analysis of Tibial Epiphyseal Plates From Cosmos 1887 Rats (COS 1887-32)
  + Effect of Microgravity on: I. Metabolic Enzymes of Individual Muscle Fibers (COS 1887-34)
  + Effect of Microgravity on: II. Metabolic Enzymes of Hippocampus and Spinal Cord (COS 1887-35)
  + The Effect of Spaceflight on Pituitary Oxytocin and Vasopressin Content of Rats (COS 1887-36)
  + Hepatic Function in Rats After Spaceflight (COS 1887-4)
  + Gravity and Skeletal Growth: III. Nuclear Volume Analysis of Osteoblast Histogenesis in Periodontal Ligament Cells of Cosmos 1887 Rats (COS 1887-5)
  + Morphological and Biochemical Investigations of Microgravity-Induced Nerve and Muscle Breakdown: I. Investigation of Nerve and Muscle Breakdown During Spaceflight (COS 1887-6)
  + Distribution and Biochemistry of Mineral and Matrix in the Femurs of Rats (COS 1887-8)
  + Study of Muscarinic and GABA (Benzodiazepine) Receptors in the Sensory-Motor Cortex, Hippocampus, and Spinal Cord (COS 1887-9)
  + Morphological and Biochemical Examination of Heart Tissue: II. Cardiac Morphology After Conditions of Microgravity (COS 2044-1)
  + Effects of Microgravity in the Adductor Longus Muscle and Receptors in the Forebrain of Rats (COS 2044-10)
  + Growth Hormone Regulation, Synthesis and Secretion in Microgravity: I. Secretion of Growth Hormone (COS 2044-11)
  + Growth Hormone Regulation, Synthesis and Secretion in Microgravity: III. Plasma Analysis Hormone Measurements (COS 2044-12)
  + DEXA Measurements: Cosmos 2229 Rhesus Flight Experiment (COS 2229-5)
  + Circadian Rhythms of Macaca Mulatta During Spaceflight (8808A06)
  + Behavior and Performance Project (8808A09)
  + Studies of Vestibular Neurons in Normal, Hyper- and Hypogravity (8809A16)
  + Clinical Assessment of Flight Pool Animals (B11-01)
  + Structural and Metabolic Plasticity of Leg Muscle (B11-03)
  + Effect of Microgravity on Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Compartments of the Autonomic Nervous System (B11-06)
  + Thermoregulation in Macaca Mulatta during Spaceflight (B11-09)
  + Energy Metabolism of Macaca Mulatta During Space Flight (B11-10)
  + Bone Tissue and Cell Effects of Spaceflight in Young Rhesus Monkey (B11-17)
  + Effect of Microgravity on the Mechanisms of Eye, Head and Hand Movement Coordination (B11-24)
  + Hematology, Cytological Composition of Bone Marrow and Standard Blood Parameters (B11-25)
  + Partial Oxygen Pressure in the Somatosensory Cortex of Monkeys in Spaceflight (B11-27)
  + Fluid Compartments, Hemocirculation and Erythrocyte Function in Monkeys After Spaceflight (B11-28)
  + Complex Study of Micro and Macro Structure and Mineral Composition of Spongy Bone (B11-30)
  + Fluid Electrolyte Metabolism and its Regulation in Primates in Microgravity (B11-31)
  + Morphologic and Metabolic Properties of Single Muscle Fibers in Hindlimb Muscles of the Rhesus (COS 2229-1)
  + Plasma Hormone Concentration in Rhesus Monkeys After Space Flight (COS 2229-6)
  + Measurement of Heart Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Concentrations (COS 2044-13)
  + Gravity and Skeletal Growth: I. Gravity and Skeletal Growth (COS 2044-15)
  + Morphological and Biochemical Examination of Heart Tissue: I. Ultra- structural Alterations in Rat Hearts After Cosmos 2044 Compared to Cosmos 1887 (COS 2044-16)
  + Effect of Spaceflight on Level and Function of Immune Cells: II. Proliferation and Cytokines (COS 2044-18)
  + Morphohistochemical, Immunocytochemical, and Biochemical Investigation of Microgravity Induced Nerve and Muscle Breakdown: II. Muscle Biochemistry (COS 2044-19)
  + Rat Testis Morphology and Physiology (COS 2044-2)
  + Pineal Physiology in Microgravity, Relation to Gonadal Function (COS 2044-20)
  + Growth Hormone Regulation, Synthesis and Secretion in Microgravity: II. Hypothalamic GH-Releasing Factor, Somatostatin Immunoreactivity, and mRNA Levels (COS 2044-22)
  + Biological Rhythm and Temperature Regulation: I. Biological Rhythms and Temperature Regulation (COS 2044-23)
  + Biological Rhythm and Temperature Regulation: II. Metabolism (COS 2044-24)
  + Effect of Zero Gravity on Myosin Isoform Expression in Rodent Skeletal Muscle (COS 2044-25)
  + Metabolic and Morphologic Properties of Muscle Fibers and Motor Neurons after Spaceflight: II. Ventral Horn Cell Responses to Spaceflight and Suspension (COS 2044-28)
  + Histologic Examination of Lung Tissue (COS 2044-29)
  + Structural Changes and Cell Turnover in the Rat's Small Intestine Induced by Spaceflight. (COS 2044-3)
  + Mineral Distribution and Balance in Rats During Spaceflight (COS 2044-30)
  + Biomechanical, Biochemical, and Morphological Alterations of Muscle and Dense Fibrous Connective Tissues: II. Composition of the Invertebral Disk (COS 2044-31)
  + Rodent Tissue Repair: II. Changes in Muscle Serine Proteases, Serpins, and Matrix Molecules (COS 2044-32)
  + Hepatic Function in Rats After Spaceflight: II. Glycogen Studies (COS 2044-33)
  + Skeletal Muscle Atrophy in Response to 14 Days of Weightlessness (COS 2044-34)
  + Effect of Spaceflight on Level and Function of Immune Cells: I. Immunology Studies (COS 2044-35)
  + Erythroid Colony Formation In-Vitro and Erythropoietin Determinations (COS 2044-37)
  + Morphological and Biochemical Examination of Heart Tissue: IV. Altered Myosin Expression in Rat Ventricular Muscle (COS 2044-38)
  + Messenger RNA Levels in Skeletal and Smooth Muscles: I. mRNA Decrease in Skeletal Muscle During Spaceflight (COS 2044-39)
  + Gravity and Skeletal Growth: II. Morphological Studies of Bone and Tendon (COS 2044-4)
  + Studies of Vestibular Primary Afferents in Normal, Hyper- and Hypogravity (COS 2044-40)
  + Messenger RNA Levels in Skeletal and Smooth Muscles: II. mRNA Levels in Smooth Muscle (COS 2044-41)
  + Biomechanical, Biochemical, and Morphological Alterations of Muscle and Dense Fibrous Connective Tissues After 14 Days Spaceflight: I. Connective Tissue Studies (COS 2044-42)
  + Rodent Tissue Repair: I. Skin Repair Studies (COS 2044-43)
  + Morphological and Biochemical Examination of Heart Tissue: III. Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Distribution in Heart Muscle of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044 (COS 2044-44)
  + Morphometric and EM Analyses of Tibial Epiphyseal Plates from Cosmos 2044 Rats (COS 2044-45)
  + Effect of Microgravity on: II. Metabolic Enzymes, Neurotransmitter Amino Acids, and Neurotransmitter Associated Enzymes in Selected Regions of the Central Nervous System (COS 2044-47)
  + Radiation Dosimetry and Spectrometry: Passive Systems (8809A18)
  + Rodent Tissue Repair: III. Skeletal Muscle (COS 2044-48)
  + Hepatic Function in Rats After Spaceflight: I. Analyses of Selected Parameters of Carbohydrate, Amino Acid, Lipid, and Xenobiotic Metabolism (COS 2044-5)
  + Gravity and Skeletal Growth: III. Recovery of Osteogenic Potential (COS 2044-6)
  + Adaptation of Optokinetic Nystagmus to Microgravity (COS 2044-8)
  + Bone Biochemistry and Mineral Distribution in the Femurs of Rats after Two Weeks in Space: Circulating Parathyroid Hormone, Calcitonin, and Osteocalcin (COS 2044-9)
  + Rhesus Monkey Immunology Study (COS 2229-2)
  + Bending Stiffness of the Tibia in Young Rhesus Monkeys after Two Weeks in Space (COS 2229-3)
  + Circadian Rhythms and Temperature Regulation in Rhesus Monkeys During Space Flight (COS 2229-4)
  + Adaptations of Motor Control in Response to Spaceflight (8808A05)
  + Response of Crown Gall Tissue to the Space Environment: Tumor Development and Anatomy (COS 782-1)
  + Effects of Weightlessness on the Embryonic Development and Aging of Drosophila (COS 782-10)
  + Quantitative Analysis of Selected Bone Parameters (COS 782-11)
  + Cosmic Ray Effect on the Eyes of Rats Flown on Cosmos 782 (COS 782-12)
  + Effects of Spaceflight on Plasma and Glandular Concentrations of Pituitary Hormones (COS 782-13)
  + Histological Studies on the Tibial Bone of Rats in the 1975 Cosmos 782 Flight: I. Endochondral Osteogenesis; Medullary Bone Turnover (COS 782-14)
  + Histological Studies on the Tibial Bone of Rats in the 1975 Cosmos 782 Flight: II. Micrographic Study of the Cortical Bone (COS 782-15)
  + Mineralization in Teeth and Jaws, as Judged Radiographically, in the Rats of the Cosmos 782 Experiment (COS 782-16)
  + Killifish Development in Zero-G on Cosmos 782 (COS 782-17)
  + HZE-Particle Dosimetry (COS 782-18)
  + Responses of Crown Gall Tissue to the Space Environment: Isozyme Patterns (COS 782-2)
  + Response of Crown Gall Tissue to the Space Environment: Residual Carbohydrates in Supporting Tissue (COS 782-3)
  + Results of Histological Examination of Inguinal Lymph Nodes (COS 782-3.2)
  + Response of Crown Gall Tissue to the Space Environment: Glutamine Synthetase Activity (COS 782-4)
  + Absence of Gastric Ulceration in Rats After Flight on the Cosmos 782 (COS 782-5)
  + The Morphogenetic Responses of Cultured Totipotent Cells of Carrot at Zero Gravity (COS 782-7)
  + Alterations in Erythrocyte Survival Parameters in Rats After 19.5 Days Aboard Cosmos 782 (COS 782-8)
  + Effect of Spaceflight on Cell-Mediated Immunity (COS 782-9)
  + Quantitative Analysis of Selected Bone Parameters: Formation of Ectopic Bone in Implanted Matrices (COS 936-1)
  + The Effects of Spaceflight on Some Liver Enzymes Concerned with Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in the Rat (COS 936-2)
  + Spaceflight Effects on Muscle Fibers (COS 936-3)
  + Effect of Weightlessness and Centrifugation (1xG) on Erythrocyte Survival in Rats Subjected to Prolonged Spaceflight (COS 936-4)
  + Cosmic Ray Effects on the Eyes of Stationary and Centrifuged Rats Flown on Cosmos 936 (COS 936-7)
  + Space Radiation Dosimetry On Board Cosmos 936 (COS 936-8)
  + Cardiovascular Results from a Rhesus Monkey Flown Aboard the Cosmos 1514 Spaceflight, and Ground-Based Controls (COS 1514-3)
  + Effect of Microgravity on Blood Pressure and Flow in the Common Carotid Artery of Primates (COS 1667-1)
  + Biochemical and Histochemical Observations of Vastus Medialis (COS 1887-29)
  + The Maturation of Bone and Dentin Matrices in Rats Flown on Cosmos 1887 (COS 1887-33)
  + The Effect of Spaceflight on Pituitary Oxytocin and Vasopressin Content (COS 2044-14)
  + Metabolic and Morphologic Properties of Muscle Fibers and Motor Neurons after Spaceflight: I. Muscle Fibers (COS 2044-27)
  + Effect of Microgravity on: I. Metabolic Enzymes in Type I, IIA, and IIB Muscle Fibers (COS 2044-46)
  + Morphohistochemical, Immunocytochemical, and Biochemical Investigation of Microgravity Induced Nerve and Muscle Breakdown: I. Muscle Histology (COS 2044-7)
  + Effects of Weightlessness on the Genetic and Aging Process of Drosophila melanogaster (COS 936-5)
  + Quantitative Analysis of Selected Bone Parameters (COS 936-6)